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Author Topic: The Beautiful and Perfect Names of Allah سبحانه و تعالى  (Read 3471 times)
mabdullah
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« on: February 04, 2012, 01:16:14 PM »


بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم


The Beautiful and Perfect Names of Allah  سبحانه و تعالى




Allah


He is the One and Only Deity, the One Who is Worshiped and the One Who deserves to be worshiped by the whole of His creation due to the Perfect Godly Attributes that He is described with. "Allah! There is none worthy of worship but He, the Living, the Sustaining. Neither slumber nor sleep overtakes Him. To Him belongs whatsoever is in the heavens and the earth. Who is there that can intercede with Him except with His Permission? He Knows what happens to them (His creatures) in this world and in the Hereafter. They will not encompass anything of His Knowledge except that which He Wills. His Footstool extends over the heavens and the earth and he feels no fatigue in guarding them. He is the Most High, the Most Great." (al-Baqarah 2/255)   

There are several points to be made regarding this name. From Qurtubi in the tafsir of the ayah al-Fatiha 1/1 while explaining the basmalah in the Qur'an stated the following: "Nothing else has this name; it is not found in female or plural form. Some scholars say this is His greatest and most complete name. It has three possible meanings: the One who deserves to be worshiped, the One whose existence is a must (He has always been and always shall be), and the Unique One.

Many scholars have said this name is derived, but have differed on what it is derived from: Some have said "ilah", with the "alif-lam" replacing the "hamza". Sibawayh said similarly "al-naas" comes from "Anaas". Some have said "lah", with the "alif-lam" used for magnification. "al-ilah", with the hamza being removed and then the two "lam"s being mixed together. "walah" = to lose one's wits, as in while contemplating Him, trying to understand Him, we become bewildered. And "ilah" is then derived from "walah". Some have said that it is the object of when the creation "yata'alahuna" to Allah for their needs, that is, we turn to Him as our deity and ask of Him. From being High, as the Arabs used to say about raising something: "laha". From the letter "ha" which is the pronoun for He who is absent, and added to it is "lam" to indicate ownership ("lam al-milk") since He owns everything, and finally added to that is "alif-lam" to magnify Him. A group of scholars have said it is not derived, and that the "alif-lam" is an integral part of the name, and not the definite article. they say that the proof is that we call upon Him with "ya Allah", and we do not drop the "alif-lam" and say "ya lah". Note that, for His other names like "ar-Rahman", we say "ya Rahman"." (Qurtubi, Tafsir)









ar-Rabb (The Lord)



This name has been repeatedly mentioned in many verses. ar-Rabb (the Lord) is the One Who nurtures and sustains all of His servants through regulating the affairs and granting all types of favors and blessings. More specifically He is the One Who nurtures and sustains his sincere friends by correcting and purifying their hearts, souls and manners. This is why their supplications are frequently made with this Noble Name because they seek this specific nurturing. "And your Lord is Most Forgiving, Owner of Mercy. Were He to call them to account for what they had earned then surely He would have hastened on their punishment. But they have their appointed time beyond which they will find no escape." (al-Kahf 18/58) This beautiful name of Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala) was also referred in the following hadith: It was narrated from Abu Hurayrah (radiyallahu anh) that Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) said: "'It will be said to the Hell, Are you filled?" (Qaf 50/30) It will say: Are there any more (to come)? On that ar-Rabb (the Lord) will put His Foot on it, and it will say: Qat! Qat! (Enough! Enough!)." (Bukhari)   









al-Malik (The King), and al-Maleek (The Master and Owner)


Alladhi lahu al-Mulk (the One to Whom belongs the dominion): He is described with the Attribute of The Master and Owner. These are Attributes of Grandeur, Majesty, Omnipotence and Regulation of the affairs of creation. The One Who directs all of the affairs to do with creation, command and recompense. To Him belongs the whole of Creation, all of it is subservient, owned and in continuous need of Him: "Then High above all be Allah, the True King. And be not in haste with the Qur'an before its revelation is completed and say: My Lord! Increase me in knowledge." (Ta-Ha 20/114); "Say: O Allah! Owner of the dominion, You give the kingdom to whom You will and You take the kingdom from whom You will. You endue with honor whom You will and You humiliate whom You will. In your Hand is the good. Indeed You are Able to do all things." (Al-i Imran 3/26)
   
The name al-Maleek was referred in the ayah: "In an Assembly of Truth, in the Presence of a Sovereign Omnipotent." (al-Qamar 54/55)

al-Malik was referred in the Qur'an: "Allah is He, than Whom there is no other god; the Sovereign, the Holy One, the Source of Peace (and Perfection), the Guardian of Faith, the Preserver of Safety, the Exalted in Might, the Irresistible, the Supreme: Glory to Allah! (High is He) above the partners they attribute to Him." (al-Hashr 59/23) Allah is al-Malik (the King who has power over all His creation) and He is the only true King in this life and the next, particularly on the Day of Judgment as He says in the Qur'an: "To Whom is the Kingship that day? To Allah, al-Wahid, al-Qahhar." (Ghafir 40/16) His Kingship is absolute and comprehensive; all others shall come before Him as weak and low, including the mortal kings and rulers of His creation. The following two ahadith illustrate this point: Abu Hurayrah (radiyallahu anh) reported that Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) said: "Allah will hold the whole earth and roll all the the heavens up in His Right Hand, and then He will say, 'I am the King, where are the kings of the earth?" (Bukhari) Again it was narrated from Abu Hurayrah (radiyallahu anh) that Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) said: "The most wretched person in the sight of Allah on the Day of Resurrection and the worst person and target of His wrath would be the person who is called Malik al-Amlak (the King of Kings) for there is no king but Allah." (Muslim)








al-Wahid, al-Ahad (The One)

He is the One Who is singled out in all aspects of Perfection such that nothing else shares with Him in these. It is obligatory upon the servants to single Him out alone in belief, saying and action by acknowledging His unrestricted perfection, His uniqueness and singling Him out Alone for all types of worship: "Say: I am only a warner and there is no god except Allah the One, the Irresistable." (Sad 38/65)

Ahad is an Arabic word derived from ahada, to make into one. The derivation ahad means "one", and it is typically used to mean "one of ...". In the Qur'an, every occurrence of ahad implicitly or explictly is an instance of the typical usage of this word; i.e., it is used to refer to "one of you" or "one of them" for example. There is only one exception where Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala) says: "Say: He is Allah, Ahad." (al-Ikhlaas 112/1) Surah al-Ikhlaas was revealed as a direct response to the polytheists asking Muhammad (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) to explain the origin of Allah. Given this context, the verse makes the clear point that Allah is "One", and the remainder of the chapter makes it clear that this particular "One" is not one of a set: He is One, Unique, and He has no origin. Note that Allah did not bother to use the definite article in front of this name, as in al-ahad. Rather, He simply said ahad. We can understand this by noting that there is no semantic difference between "the unique one" and "unique one". The fact is, He is ahad (One and Unique) and everything else is ahadu shay (one of something). This name stresses the unique nature of Allah, and emphasizes that nothing can be compared to Him. He has no partner, no child, no parent, and ascribing such to him is a huge monstrosity: "Say: He is Allah, the One and Only; Allah, the Eternal, Absolute; He begetteth not, nor is He begotten; And there is none like unto Him." (al-Ikhlaas 112/1-4)

He is al-Wahid, the One, meaning He who is the only one deserving of worship. He has no partner, and He has no equal: "O two companions of the prison! Are many different lords better or Allah, the One, the Irresistable?" (Yusuf 12/39)






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mabdullah
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« Reply #1 on: February 10, 2012, 02:56:38 PM »



as-Samad (The Self-Sufficient)


He is the One upon Whom the whole of creation relies upon in all of their needs, predicaments and necessities. This due to His unrestricted perfection with regards to His Essence, His Names, His Attributes and His Actions: "Say: He is Allah the One. Allah the Self-Sufficient." (al-Ikhlaas 112/1-2) At least four meanings have been ascribed to this name. Imam Qurtubi believes the first one is the accurate one, whereas ibn Kathir says all four are correct (i.e., the name has multiple meanings). These are: The One to Whom the creation turns to for its needs and in times of calamity. Moreover, He is not in need of anyone or anything; the Everlasting, Persistent One who does not beget and is not begotten; the One whose dominion is complete; and the One who does not eat or drink.







al-Alim (the All-Knowing), al-Khabir (the All-Aware)



He is the One Whose Knowledge encompasses all the outward and hidden matters, the open and secret, all those things that must necessarily occur, all those things that are impossible to occur and all things that can possibly occur, of the affairs of the whole of creation, of the past, the present and the future. There is absolutely nothing that is hidden from Him: "Verily Allah! With Him (Alone) is the knowledge of the Hour, he sends down the rain and knows what is in the wombs. No person knows what he will earn tomorrow and no person knows in what land he will die. Indeed Allah is All-Knowing, All-Aware." (Luqman 31/34); "O Mankind! We have created you from a male and a female and made you into nations and tribes that you may know each other. Verily, the most honorable of you in the Sight of Allah is the most God-Fearing of you. Indeed Allah is the All-Knower, the All-Aware." (al-Hujurat 49/13)



He is al-Alim, the One who is all-knowing about His creation.: "They said: Glory to Thee, of knowledge We have none, save what Thou Hast taught us: In truth it is Thou Who art perfect in knowledge and wisdom." (al-Baqarah 2/32) He is the One who is all-knowing about His creation: "Should not He who has created know?" (al-Mulk 67/14)



He is al-Khabir, the One who is knowledgeable and well-acquainted with His creation and all that they do: "He is the irresistible, (watching) from above over His worshipers; and He is the Wise, acquainted with all things." (al-An'am 6/18)






al-Hakim (the All-Wise) 






He is the One to Whom belongs the highest wisdom, the One Who is All-Wise in His creating and commanding, Who perfected everything He created: "and Who is better than Allah in judgment for a people who have firm faith?" (al-Ma'idah 5/50) Therefore He has created nothing out of mere frivolity and He has legislated nothing that is vain and of no use. The One to Whom belongs wisdom in the beginning and the end. He has three areas of ruling which nothing else has a share in: He rules between His servants with respect to His Law, His Decree and His Recompense. Wisdom is to place something in its correct place: "For those who believe not in the Hereafter is an evil description and for Allah is the highest description. He is the All-Mighty, All-Wise." (an-Nahl 16/60); "It is He Who is the only God worshiped in the heaven and the on the earth. He is the All-Wise, the All-Knowing." (az-Zukhruf 43/84)
   









ar-Rahman (The Most Beneficent), ar-Rahim (the Most Merciful), al-Barr (The Generous), al-Karim (the Kind), al-Akram (the Most Noble-hearted), al-Jawwad (The Bestower of Good), ar-Rauf (the Kind), al-Wahhab (The Bestower)





All of these Names are close in meaning and all of them point to describing the Lord with Mercy, Generosity, Kindness, and to the great expanse of His Mercy and Generosity that encompasses all that is existence being granted in accordance to what His Wisdom dictates. The believers have been specifically singled out for this and they are granted a goodly and the best portion of this as Allah said: "My Mercy encompasses all things and I shall decree it for those who have taqwa." (al-A'raf 7/156)




He is al-Barr,

the One who is generous, kind, and beneficent. It has also been said that it refers to Him being true to His promise (in the context of reward). So the blessings and the good are all from the effects of His Mercy, Generosity and Kindness just as all the goodness in this world and in the Hereafter is from the effects of His Mercy: "Verily, we used to invoke Him Alone before. Verily He is the Generous, the Most Merciful." (at-Tur 52/28)




He is al-Karim,

the One who is noble, generous, and gracious: "O man! What has made you careless concerning your Lord, the Kind." (al-Infitar 82/6); "And had it not been for the Grace of Allah and His Mercy on you, (Allah would have hastened the Punishment). And that Allah is the Kind, the Most Merciful." (an-Nur 24/20)



He is al-Akram

which is the superlative form of "karim" had been mentioned in the Qur’an: “Proclaim! And thy Lord is Most Bountiful.” (al-Alaq 96/3) al-Akram means noble-hearted, magnanimous, and generous (i.e., "the Most Noble-hearted"). Some have said that it is specifically referring to the understanding, patience, and disregard -all traits of the noblehearted- which Allah shows towards the ignorance of His servants. They base this on the events concerning the revelation of this particular name: the first verses of the Qur'an were 96/1-5, and they were sent to a man who could neither read nor write, Muhammad (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam).




He is al-Wahhab,

the One who bestows mercy and success on His creation. He also grants conviction with Islam upon His believing servants who turn to Him: "(They say): Our Lord, let not our hearts deviate after You have guided us and grant us Mercy from You. Truly you are the Bestower." (Al-i Imran 3/8)




He is al-Rauf,

the One who is Merciful and Compassionate. This form is more intensive than "ar-Rahim", i.e., "ar-ra'fa" is stronger than "ar-rahma" in the Arabic language: "Thus, have We made of you an ummat justly balanced, that ye might be witnesses over the nations, and the Messenger a witness over yourselves; and We appointed the Qiblah to which thou wast used, only to test those who followed the Messenger from those who would turn on their heels (From the Faith). Indeed it was (A change) momentous, except to those guided by Allah. And never would Allah Make your faith of no effect. For Allah is to all people Most surely full of kindness, Most Merciful." (al-Baqarah 2/143)





He is al-Rahim,

the Merciful One. Imam Qurtubi mentions that there are some who believe it refers to Allah being merciful to His believing servants by giving them guidance and forgiveness.





He is al-Rahman,


the (uniquely) Merciful One. This name is more intensive than "ar-Rahim", so much so that it is unique to Allah. No one else can be named using this adjective (i.e., we cannot call someone "Rahman"). It indicates that Allah has no equal whatsoever in His Mercy. It was referred in the hadith which was narrated from Abu Hurayrah (radiyallahu anh) that Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) said: “There are one hundred (parts of) mercy of Allah and He has sent down out of these one part of mercy upon the jinn and human beings and the insects and it is because of this (one part) that they love one another, show kindness to one another and even the beast treats its young one with affection, and Allah has reserved ninety-nine parts of mercy with which He would treat His servants on the Day of Resurrection.” (Muslim) Prior to Islam, this name was not known to the Arabs. Qurtubi also mentions that there are some who believe that this name refers to Allah being merciful to everyone by giving them sustenance and wealth.



He is al-Jawwad,

the One who is generous and magnanimous. A reference is found in the following hadith: It was narrated from Abu Dhar (radiyallahu anh): “Allah (Jalla Jalaluhu) says: My servants, all of you are misguided except whoever I have guided, so ask Me for guidance and I will guide you. And all of you are poor except whoever I have made rich, so ask Me for sustenance. All of you are sinners except whoever I have pardoned, so whoever of you knows that I possess the power of forgiveness, then asked Me for forgiveness, then I have forgiven him, and I do not mind. And if the first of you and the last of you and your living and your dead and your strong and your weak were all to unite on the heart of the most pious slave of My slaves, this would not have added to My kingdom the wing of a mosquito. And if the first of you and the last of you and your living and your dead and your strong and your weak were all to unite on the heart of the most wretched slave of My slaves, this would not have subtracted from My kingdom the wing of a mosquito. And if the first of you and the last of you and your living and your dead and your strong and your weak were all to come together in one clearing, then each person of you asked for what would fulfill his desires, then I gave to each asker of you what he asked for, this would not have diminished My kingdom except as if one of you passed by the sea then dipped a needle into it then lifted it to himself. This is because I am Generous (Jawwad), Exalted, I do whatever I wish. My gift is nothing but My command, My punishment is nothing but My command. Rather, My command to something if I willed it is to say 'Be!', so it becomes." (Tirmidhi)








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