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mabdullah
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« on: July 26, 2011, 03:45:30 AM »

بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ



 
Fasting in Ramadhan-(Sawm) 4th Pillar of Islam



Allah Azza wa Jall say:

يَـٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ كُتِبَ عَلَيۡڪُمُ ٱلصِّيَامُ كَمَا كُتِبَ عَلَى ٱلَّذِينَ مِن قَبۡلِڪُمۡ لَعَلَّكُمۡ تَتَّقُونَ


"Oh you who believe! Fasting is prescribed to you as it was prescribed to those before you, that you many become Al-Muttaqûn (learn piety and rightousness)" (Qur'an, al-Baqarah, 2:183)

"...whoever witnesses the Month of Ramadan should fast through it..." Q(2:185)

 "...And it is better for you that ye fast, if ye only knew." (Q 2:184)

"Ramadan is the (month) in which the Quran was sent down, as a guide to mankind and a clear guidance and judgment (so that mankind will distinguish from right and wrong).." (Q 2:183)



..



Ritual fasting is an obligatory act during the month of Ramadan.Muslims must abstain from food, drink, and sexual intercourse with spouse from dawn to dusk during this month, and are to be especially mindful of other sins. Fasting is necessary for every Muslim over the age of puberty

The fast is meant to allow Muslims to seek nearness to God, to express their gratitude to and dependence on him, atone for their past sins, and to remind them of the needy.

During Ramadan, Muslims are also expected to put more effort into following the teachings of Islam by refraining from violence, anger, envy, greed, lust, profane language, gossip and to try to get along with fellow Muslims better. In addition, all obscene and irreligious sights and sounds are to be avoided.

Fasting during Ramadan is obligatory, but is forbidden for several groups for whom it would be very dangerous and excessively problematic.

These include pre-pubescent children, those with a medical condition such as diabetes, elderly people, and pregnant or breastfeeding women. Observing fasts is not permitted for menstruating women. Other individuals for whom it is considered acceptable not to fast are those who are ill or traveling. Missing fasts usually must be made up for soon afterward, although the exact requirements vary according to circumstance.


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« Last Edit: August 13, 2011, 02:07:09 PM by mabdullah » Logged
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« Reply #1 on: July 26, 2011, 03:50:51 AM »

بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ


The 4th Pillar of Islam -Sawm-Summary


Qadi ‘Iyad

The Foundations of Islam

INTRODUCTION
IN THE NAME OF ALLAH THE MERCIFUL, THE COMPASSIONATE

Qadi Abu’l-Fadl ‘Iyad, may Allah be pleased with him, said: Praise belongs to Allah, the only One to whom praise is due. I ask Him to single out our Prophet Muhammad and his family with the purest and most abundant blessings, and to make all our words and deeds purely for His pleasure.

Desiring the good and eager to train students in right action, you have asked me to draw up the essentials of the limits of the foundations of Islam in an accessible form. Know that Islam’s foundations are five in number as our Messenger, blessings of Allah and peace be on him, has said:

“Islam is founded on five things:

Bearing witness that there is no god but Allah and that Muhammad is His slave and His Messenger
Establishing Prayer
Paying the Wealth-tax
Fasting the month of Ramadan
And Performing the Journey to the House.”

Sawm -Fast

It has six different groups:

1. OBLIGATORY

2. sunnah

3. PREFERABLE

4. VOLUNTARY

5. DISLIKED

6. FORBIDDEN

THE OBLIGATORY TYPES ARE TEN:

1. The fast of Ramadan.

2. The fast of every vow (nadhr) a man has made obligatory upon himself.

3. Making up the fast of Ramadan.

4. Making up a vow which it is obligatory to make up.

5. Fasting the reparation of dhihar (an oath by a husband that his wife is ‘like his mother’s back’: that is, sexual relations with her are haraam for him).

6. Fasting the reparation of murder.

7. Fasting the reparation of an oath by Allah, the Powerful and Majestic.

8. Fasting the reparation of hunting game in the haraam or when dressed in Ihram.

9. The fast for Hajj Tamattu’.

10. The fast of reparation for cleaning off dirt while in Ihram during the Hajj.

THE FAST OF sunnah:

1.
The fast of the Day of ‘Ashura, which is the tenth of al-Muharram. It is also said to be the ninth.

THE PREFERABLE FASTS ARE TEN:

1. Fasting the haraam months.

2. Fasting Sha’ban.

3. The first ten days of Dhu’l Hijjah.

4. The day of ‘Arafa.

5. Three days in every month.

6. The first ten days of al-Muharram.

7. The fifth day (Thursday) of the week.

8. The second day (Monday) of the week.

9. The day of Jumu’a if it is connected to fasting a day before or after it, by virtue of the hadith that relates to this.

10. Six days of Shawwal, if they are fasted because of what has been related regarding their excellence – but it is not to be made a sunnah.

THE VOLUNTARY FASTS ARE:

Every fast not done for a particular time or reason on any days other than those which must be fasted or on which it is forbidden to fast.

THE DISLIKED FASTS ARE FIVE:

1. The perpetual fast.

2. Fasting the day of Jumu’a by itself.

3. Fasting on Saturday by itself.

4. Fasting the day of ‘Arafa for the man making Hajj.

5. Fasting the last day of Sha’ban as a precaution, in case it is Ramadan.

THE FORBIDDEN FASTS ARE FIVE:

1. Fasting the day of ‘Id al-Fitr.

2. Fasting the day of ‘Id al-Adha.

3. Fasting the three days of Tashriq after the ‘Id al-Adha except for the man doing Hajj Tamattu’. But leniency is given for the fourth day for whoever has owed to fast it or fasts it as a reparation. Regarding that and the two days before it there is a difference of opinion.

4. The fast of the menstruating woman and the woman bleeding from childbirth until both of them witness the state of purity before Fajr.

5. The fast of one who fears for himself that he would perish on account of the fast.

THE CONDITIONS OF THE OBLIGATION TO FAST RAMADAN ARE SIX:

1. Attaining maturity.

2. Sound mind.

3. Islam or having entered it.

4. Being capable of fasting.

5. The entrance of the month.

6. Knowledge of its entrance.

It is required of the traveller, except that he has the licence to break his fast. It is required of the menstruating woman and the woman bleeding from childbirth, except that it cannot be performed validly by them in that condition. Therefore, they make it up later.

ITS OBLIGATORY PARTS ARE EIGHT:

1. Keeping look-out for the month.

2. Making intention at the beginning of it.

3. Keeping the fast the whole month long.

4. Fasting completely all the parts of the day.

5. Refraining from anything that enters the cavity of the stomach in the form of something solid that gives nourishment or a liquid, except such things that there is no way to get around, like the saliva of the mouth, the sweat of the forehead, the dust of the road, a fly that gets in the mouth, and things like that.

6. Abstention from ejaculation of semen or causing it to happen by calling thoughts to mind, physical contact, and similar things.

7. Abstention from sexual relation with spouse during fast.

8. Abstention from encouraging vomiting unless there is a pressing need.

ITS sunnan ARE EIGHT:

1. To stand in prayer during its nights.

2. To do that as a jama’at in the mosques.

3. To take the pre-dawn meal during it.

4. To break the fast quickly (upon sunset).

5. To make the pre-dawn meal late (just before dawn).

6. To do itikaf during the last part of it.

7. To hand over the Zakat al-Fitr at the end of the month.

8. To guard the tongue and the parts of the body during it from foulness, ignorance, and that which is not worthwhile.

THE PREFERABLE ASPECTS ARE EIGHT:

1. To renew the intention for every day of it.

2. To bring it to life by dhikr, recitation of the Qur’an, and salat.

3. To give much sadaqa during it.

4. To seek out for fast-breaking that which is halaal and about which there is not the slightest doubt.

5. To begin the fast-breaking with dried dates or water.

6. To observe the 27th night of it.

7. For the man to do the Tarawih prayer alone in his house unless there is already a jama’at that is doing it in the mosque:

8. Then, it is more excellent for him to establish the jama’at.

THE THINGS WHICH INVALIDATE THE FAST ENTIRELY ARE TEN:

1. To have a strong ejaculation of semen by intent or by pleasure during wakefulness – likewise the coming out of the pre-seminal fluid for a man who is awake.

2. Sexual relation with spouse during fast.

3. To let anything enter the cavity of the stomach by way of the mouth or the nostrils: food, drink, or other than these.

4. Similarly what enters the eyes or the ears: types of ointments or kohl. It is not affected by what comes about by way of a syringe or similar things.

5. Intentionally making oneself vomit, or swallowing vomit or phlegm back into the throat after it has reached the point where it should be spat out.

6. Fasting without intention, except for the fast of consecutive days. Then it is enough to make the intention on the first day, like Ramadan, for example. It is also said, like the fast for a vow regarding a particular day and on the Day of ‘Ashura.

7. Rejecting Islam during it.

8. The occurrence of menstruation or the bleeding of childbirth during it.

9. The occurrence of loss of consciousness or madness at the break of dawn or the whole of the day in general.

10. Breaking off the intention to fast during the day – although there are differences of opinion in this matter.

THE THINGS IN IT WHICH ARE DISLIKED ARE TEN:

1. Fasting a number of days in a row without breaking the fast.

2. Kissing – this is more than disliked for a man who fears he will not be able to control himself.

3. Similarly, physical contact.

4. Entering upon one’s wives while they are in privacy.

5. Looking at them with desire.

6. Using any of the parts of the body in acts or words that are beyond what is necessary.

7. Putting in the mouth anything moist or dry which has taste, even if he spits it out.

8. Use of kohl for one who gets it into his throat while preparing it. Similarly, putting ointment on the head and what is like it.

9. Going to excess in rinsing out the mouth and nostrils.

10. Sleeping too much during the day.

BREAKING THE FAST

THE EXCUSES THAT MAKE IT PERMISSIBLE TO BREAK THE FAST ARE SIX:

1. Sickness,

2. Pregnancy and –

3. Nursing, if those having these conditions fear for themselves that they will get sicker, or if the nursing woman fears for her child.

4. Being overwhelmed by hunger or thirst.

5. Taking medicine in the form of what enters the cavity of the stomach if there is no way around it.

6. Travelling the distance beyond which the salat is shortened.

THE EXCUSES THAT MAKE IT NECESSARY TO BREAK THE FAST ARE SIX:

1. Menstruation.

2. Bleeding from childbirth.

3. Being too weak to fast to the extent that he fears for himself that he will perish if he does not break the fast.

4. Likewise the pregnant and nursing women if they fear for themselves or their babies that they will perish.

5. Realising the day to be among those on which it is not permissible to fast.

6. Intentionally breaking the fast of a day which is not in Ramadan, or when making up Ramadan, or when fasting a particular day. Then it is necessary that he not fast out the remainder of the day.

THE THINGS THAT MUST BE DONE AS A CONSEQUENCE OF BREAKING THE FAST ARE SIX:

1. To finish fasting the entire remainder of the day. This is for everyone who intentionally breaks the fast during Ramadan or who breaks it out of forgetfulness – but not for the one who breaks it for a valid excuse.

2. Making it up. This is a necessary consequence for every obligatory fast which has been left out or spoiled by choice, necessity, or forgetfulness. Except for the person who has made a specific vow. If he breaks his fast out of necessity he is not required to make it up. There are differences regarding one who forgets. It is necessary to make it up for other than obligatory fasts if they are invalidated by choice.

3. Reparation. It is specifically required of one who violates the hurmah (inviolability) of Ramadan by intentionally breaking the fast through one of the things that invalidate it which were mentioned earlier. For every day that he violates it there is reparation:

By freeing a slave.

Or by fasting for two months in a row.

Or by feeding sixty poor people.

4. Ransom. It is necessary as the result of four things:

a. For anyone who goes too far in putting off making up the fast of Ramadan until another Ramadan has come upon him.

b. The pregnant, or –

c. Nursing women if they fear for themselves or their babies.

All of these do reparation by giving a measure of food against every day for which they are responsible, once they have begun to make it up.

d. Similarly, the old man who is completely incapable of fasting. He must pay ransom for every day.

5. Cutting off consecutive fasting intentionally by breaking the fast in a manner that spoils the fast of consecutive sequence, such as the fasting for vows, the reparation of murder, of dhihar, breaking the fast of Ramadan. It is also necessary to resume the continuity if it has been broken.

* * *

Allah – He is Exalted – protect all of us from making mistakes and saying worthless things. May He bring us to the success of words and actions that are to the point. This by His freely-given bounty. There is no God but Him. There is no Lord beside Him.

May Allah bless Muhammad – His chosen Prophet – and his family and give them abundant peace.

Hasbuna’llahu wa ni’mal-wakil. Allah is enough for us – how excellent a Guardian.



« Last Edit: August 13, 2011, 01:53:00 PM by mabdullah » Logged
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« Reply #2 on: July 31, 2011, 11:17:45 AM »

 
بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ



Some virtues of Ramadan from Quran and Sunna
 




Narrated Abu Huraira(r.a): The Prophet said:"... whoever fasts during Ramadan out of sincere faith and hoping to attain Allah's rewards, then all his past sins will be forgiven." (Sahih Al-Bukhari).


"Indeed We have revealed it (Qur'an) in the night of Power. And what will explain to you what the night of Power is? The night of Power is better than a thousand months. Therein descends the Angels and the Spirit (Jibreel) by Allah's permission, on every errand: (they say) "Peace" (continuously) till the rise of Morning!" Q(97:1-5)

It is called the night of Power (i.e Laelat-ut Qadr) or the night of blessing (Laelat-ul mubarak). The deed in this night is better than the rewards of deeds of 1,000 months (about 83.3 years).


..


Abu Said al-Khudri reported that the Messenger of Allah, said: "No servant fasts on a day in the path of Allah except that Allah removes the hellfire seventy years further away from his face." This is related by "the group," except for Abu Dawud.


`Abdullah ibn `Amr reported that the Messenger of Allah, salla Allahu alaihi wa sallam, said: "The fast and the Qur'an are two intercessors for the servant of Allah on the Day of Resurrection. The fast will say: 'O Lord, I prevented him from his food and desires during the day. Let me intercede for him.' The Qur'an will say: 'I prevented him from sleeping at night. Let me intercede for him.' And their intercession will be accepted." [Ahmad]


..


Abu Umamah reported: "I came to the Messenger of Allah and said: 'Order me to do a deed that will allow me to enter Paradise.' He said: 'Stick to fasting, as there is no equivalent to it.' Then I came to him again and he said: 'Stick to fasting."' [Ahmad, an-Nasa'i, and al-Hakim].


Sahl ibn Sa'd reported that the Prophet salla Allahu alaihi wa sallam said: "There is a gate to Paradise that is called ar-Rayyan. On the Day of Resurrection it will say: 'Where are those who fasted?' When the last [one] has passed through the gate, it will be locked." [al-Bukhari and Muslim].


He who is amongst those who pray will be called from the gate of the prayer (in Paradise) and he who is from the people of Jihad will be called from the gate of Jihad, and he who is from those' who give in charity (i.e. Zakat) will be called from the gate of charity, and he who is amongst those who observe fast will be called from the gate of fasting, the gate of Raiyan." Abu Bakr said, "He who is called from all those gates will need nothing," He added, "Will anyone be called from all those gates, O Allah's Apostle?" He said, "Yes, and I hope you will be among those, O Abu Bakr." [Bukhari]


Abu Hurairah reported that the Prophet (S) said : "The time between the five prayers, two consecutive Friday Prayers, and two cosecutive Ramadans are expiations for all that has happened during that period, provided that one has avoided the grave (major) sins." [Muslim]


In another hadith, the Messenger of Allah (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) says, "Ramadan has come to you. (It is) a month of blessing, in which Allah covers you with blessing, for He sends down Mercy, decreases sins and answers prayers. In it, Allah looks at your competition (in good deeds), and boasts about you to His angels. So show Allah goodness from yourselves, for the unfortunate one is he who is deprived in (this month) of the mercy of Allah, the Mighty, the Exalted." [Narrated by Tabarani]




Abu Umaamah r.a.a. said: I said: 'O Messenger of Allah, tell me of an action by which I may enter Paradise'. He said: 'Take to Fasting, there is nothing like it.' [An-Nasaa'ee, Ibn Hibbaan, Al-Haakim, Saheeh]


"Fasting is prescribed for you as it was prescribed for those before you, that you may attain taqwaa." [2:183]


The most honoured by Allah amongst you are those best in taqwaa."[49:13]

 
"Every action of the son of Adam is given manifold reward, each good deed receiving then times its like, up to seven hundred times. Allah the Most High said, 'Except for fasting, for it is for Me and I will give recompense for it, he leaves off his desires and his food for Me.' for the fasting person there are two times of joy; a time when he breaks his fast and a time of joy when he meets his Lord, and the smell coming from the mouth of the fasting person is better with Allah than the smell of musk." [al-Bukhaaree]


"Fasting is a shield with which a servant protects himself from the Fire." [Ahmad, Saheeh]
On the Day of Judgement, "Fasting will say: O My Lord I prevented him from food and desires so accept my intercession for him." [Ahmad, al-Haakim and Abu Nu'aim, Hasan]


There are in the month of Ramadhan in every day and night those to whom Allah grants freedom from the Fire, and there is for every Muslim an supplication which he can make and will be granted." [al-Bazzaar, Ahmad, Saheeh]


The Prophet said: He who gives food for a fasting person to break his fast, he will receive the same reward as him, except that nothing will be reduced from the fasting persons reward." [Ahmad, at-Tirmidhee, Ibn Maajah, Ibn Hibbaan, Saheeh].


"When My servants ask you (O Muhammad) concerning Me,

I am indeed close (to them):

I listen to the prayer of every suppliant when he call upon Me:

let them also, with a will, listen to My call, and believe in Me: that they may walk in the right way."


(Quran 2:186)




.....



For whom is fasting Ramadaan obligatory?.
 

 Summary has been discussed above, below are rulings with evidence from Quran and Sunna
 

1-     He is a Muslim
 
2-     He is accountable (mukallaf)
 
3-     He is able to fast
 
4-     He is settled (not travelling)
 
5-     There are no impediments to fasting
 
If these five conditions are met, then it is obligatory for a person to fast.
 
Kaafirs are excluded from the first condition. The kaafir is not obliged to fast and his fast is not valid. If he becomes Muslim he is not obliged to make up fasts from before.
 
The evidence for that is the verse in which Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
 
“And nothing prevents their contributions from being accepted from them except that they disbelieved in Allaah and in His Messenger (Muhammad) and that they came not to As-Salaah (the prayer) except in a lazy state, and that they offer not contributions but unwillingly”
 
[al-Tawbah 9:54]
 
If the contribution is not acceptable even though it benefits others, because of their kufr, then other acts of worship may be even more unacceptable.
 
He does not have to make up fasts if he becomes Muslim because Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
 
“Say to those who have disbelieved, if they cease (from disbelief), their past will be forgiven”
 
[al-Anfaal 8:38]
 
And it was proven in mutawaatir reports that the Messenger (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) did not tell those who became Muslim to make up the obligatory duties that they had missed.
 
Will the kaafir be punished in the Hereafter for not fasting if he did not become Muslim?
 
The answer is:
 
Yes, he will be punished for not fasting, and for not doing any other obligatory duties, because if the Muslim who obeyed Allaah and adhered to His laws will be punished for that, then it is more apt that he (the kaafir) should be punished. If the kaafir is to be punished for the blessings of Allaah that he enjoyed, such as food, drink and clothing, then it is more appropriate that he will be punished for doing haraam actions and not doing obligatory duties. This is by way of analogy.  
 
With regard to the texts, Allaah says that those on the Right (i.e., the believers) will say to the disbelievers:  
 
“ ‘What has caused you to enter Hell?’
 
They will say: ‘We were not of those who used to offer the Salaah (prayers),
 
Nor used we to feed Al-Miskeen (the poor);
 
And we used to talk falsehood (all that which Allaah hated) with vain talkers.
 
And we used to belie the Day of Recompense’”
 
[al-Muddaththir 74:42]
 
These four things are what will cause them to enter Hell.
 
“We were not of those who used to offer the Salaah (prayers)” means they did not pray; “Nor used we to feed Al-Miskeen (the poor)” means they did not pay zakaah; “And we used to talk falsehood (all that which Allaah hated) with vain talkers” means things like mocking the verses of Allaah;  “And we used to belie the Day of Recompense.”
 
The second condition:
 
He should be accountable (mukallaf). The one who is mukallaf is one who is has reached the age of puberty and is of sound mind, because a minor or one who is insane is not accountable. Puberty is reached when one of the three signs is noticed – see question no. 20475.
 
The one who is of sound mind is the opposite of one is insane, which is one who has lost his mind, whether he is insane or feeble-minded. Everyone who has lost his mind, in whatever sense, is not accountable and he is not obliged to do any of the obligatory duties of Islam, be it prayer, fasting or feeding the poor; he does not have to do anything at all.
 
The third condition:
 
Being able to fast. The one who is unable to fast does not have to fast, because Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
 
“and whoever is ill or on a journey, the same number [of days which one did not observe Sawm (fasts) must be made up] from other days”
 
[al-Baqarah 2:185]
 
But being unable to fast falls into two categories: temporary inability and permanent inability.
 
Temporary inability is that which is mentioned in the verse quoted above, such as one who is sick but hopes to recover, and the traveller. These people are allowed not to fast, then they have to make up what they missed.
 
Those who are permanently unable to fast, such as one who is sick and has no hope of recovery, or those who are elderly and are unable to fast, are mentioned in the verse (interpretation of the meaning):
 
“And as for those who can fast with difficulty, (e.g. an old man), they have (a choice either to fast or) to feed a Miskeen (poor person) (for every day)”
 
[al-Baqarah 2:184]
 
As Ibn ‘Abbaas (may Allaah be pleased with him) interpreted it, it refers to the old man and old woman who are not able to fast, so they should feed one poor person for each day.
 
The fourth condition:
 
He should be settled (not travelling). If he is travelling then it is not obligatory for him to fast, because Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
 
“and whoever is ill or on a journey, the same number [of days which one did not observe Sawm (fasts) must be made up] from other days”
 
[al-Baqarah 2:185]
 
The scholars are agreed that it is permissible for a traveller not to fast.
 
It is better for the traveller to do that which is easier. If fasting is likely to be harmful then it becomes haraam to fast, because Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
 
“And do not kill yourselves (nor kill one another). Surely, Allaah is Most Merciful to you”
 
[al-Nisa’ 4:29]
 
This indicates that whatever is harmful to a person is forbidden to him. See also question no. 20165.
 
If you ask, what is the degree of harm which makes fasting haraam?
 
The answer is:
 
Harm may be physical, or someone advises him that fasting may harm him. With regard to physical harm, that means that the sick person feels that fasting is harming him and causing him pain, and will delay his recovery and so on.
 
With regard to being advised, this means that a knowledgeable and trustworthy doctor tells him that it will harm him.
 
The fifth condition:
 
There should be no impediments. This applies specifically to women. Women who are menstruating or bleeding following childbirth should not fast, because the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Is it not the case that when she gets her period, she does not pray or fast?”
 
So she should not fast and her fast is not valid in this case, according to scholarly consensus. And she has to make up the days missed, also according to scholarly consensus.
 
Al-Sharh al-Mumti’, 6/330.
 
And Allaah knows best.







« Last Edit: August 13, 2011, 02:00:42 PM by mabdullah » Logged
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« Reply #3 on: July 31, 2011, 01:14:31 PM »

بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ



The reasons for which one may be excused from fasting in Ramadaan.



Summary has been discussed above, below are rulings with evidence from Quran and Sunna
 



Praise be to Allaah.  

One of the ways in which Allaah has made things easy for His slaves is that He has only enjoined fasting upon those who are able to do it, and He has excused those who are unable to fast for a legitimate shar’i reason. The legitimate reasons for which one may be excused from fasting are as follows:

1 – Sickness

Sickness means everything that means that a person is not healthy.  

Ibn Qudaamah said: the scholars are agreed that it is permissible for the sick person not to fast in general. The basis of that is the aayah in which Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“but if any of you is ill or on a journey, the same number (should be made up) from other days”  [al-Baqarah 2:184]

It was narrated that Salamah ibn al-Akwa’ (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: “When this aayah was revealed – ‘And as for those who can fast with difficulty, (e.g. an old man), they have (a choice either to fast or) to feed a Miskeen (poor person) (for every day)’ [al-Baqarah 2:184 – interpretation of the meaning] – those who wanted not to fast could do that, and pay the fidyah (i.e., feed one poor person for each day). That remained the case until the following aayah was revealed, i.e., the verse:

‘And as for those who can fast with difficulty, (e.g. an old man), they have (a choice either to fast or) to feed a Miskeen (poor person) (for every day)’

 [al-Baqarah 2:185 – interpretation of the meaning] – so it abrogated it.”  

The sick person who fears that fasting may make his sickness worse or that it will slow down his recovery or damage a part of his body, has the option of not fasting, and indeed it is Sunnah for him not to fast and it is makrooh for him to complete his fast, because that may lead to his death. So he has to be cautious and protect himself. Moreover, if the sick person is very ill, that makes it permissible for him not to fast. But if a healthy person fears difficulty or tiredness, it is not permissible for him to break his fast, if all that happens to him when he fasts is that he becomes tired.

2 – Travelling

In order for traveling to result in a concession excusing one from fasting, the following conditions must be met:

a-     The journey must be long enough that prayers may be shortened.

b-    The traveler must not intend to settle in the place to which he travels.

c-     His journey must not be for any sinful purpose, rather it should be for a sound purpose, according to the majority of scholars. That is because being allowed not to fast is a concession and relief that the sinner does not deserve on his journey, because the purpose of his journey is to commit sin – such as one who travels in order to commit banditry, for example.

Cancellation of the concession for traveling:

This concession of traveling is cancelled by two things:

(i)                When the traveler returns home and enters his hometown, which is the place where he resides.

(ii)              When the traveler decides to stay indefinitely, or for a lengthy period in one place, and the place is fit for settling in. Thus he becomes a resident (or non-traveller), so he should pray his prayers in full and not break his fast in Ramadaan, because the rulings on travel no longer apply to him.

3 – Pregnancy and breastfeeding

The fuqaha’ are agreed that pregnant and breastfeeding women may break their fast in Ramadaan, on the condition that they think there is a risk that they or their children may become ill or more ill, or be harmed or may die. The evidence for this concession in their case is the aayah (interpretation of the meaning:

“and whoever is ill or on a journey, the same number [of days which one did not observe Sawm (fasts) must be made up] from other days”   [al-Baqarah 2:185]

This does not refer to merely being sick, for the sick person who will not be harmed by fasting is not allowed to break the fast; here sickness is mentioned as a metaphor for any situation where fasting when sick may cause harm. This is what is meant by sickness here. That may be the case in pregnancy and when breastfeeding, so these two cases are included in the concession of breaking the fast. The evidence that women in these cases are allowed not to fast is the hadeeth of Anas ibn Maalik al-Ka’bi (may Allaah be pleased with him), who said that the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Allaah has relieved the traveler of fasting and half of prayer, and He has relieved the pregnant and breastfeeding woman of fasting.”  

4 – Senility and old age

Senility and old age refers to one who is old and has lost his strength, or who is approaching death, so that every day he becomes weaker, until he dies, or who is suffering from a terminal or incurable illness and has no hope of recovery. The evidence that it is prescribed for such people not to fast is the aayah (interpretation of the meaning):

“And as for those who can fast with difficulty, (e.g. an old man), they have (a choice either to fast or) to feed a Miskeen (poor person) (for every day)”   [al-Baqarah 2:184]

Ibn ‘Abbaas (may Allaah be pleased with him) said that this aayah has not been abrogated, and it applies to old men and old women who cannot fast, so for each day they should feed one poor person.

5 – Intense hunger and thirst

If a person is overtaken by intense hunger or unbearable thirst, then he should break his fast and eat just as much as he needs to ward off that hunger, then he should refrain from eating for the rest of the day, and make up that fast later on.

The scholars added to intense hunger and thirst the fear of weakness when meeting the enemy, or fearing or expecting an attack, such as when one is surrounded. So if a fighter knows for sure or thinks it most likely that there will be fighting because he is facing the enemy, and he fears that fasting may make him weak when fighting, and he is not traveling, then he may break his fast before fighting.

6 – Compulsion

Compulsion means one person forcing another to do something or not to do something against his will, by means of threats.


« Last Edit: August 13, 2011, 02:01:12 PM by mabdullah » Logged
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« Reply #4 on: August 05, 2011, 03:50:56 PM »

بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ


What are the categories of rulings on fasting?.

 
Summary has been discussed above, below are rulings with evidence from Quran and Sunna
 



Praise be to Allaah.


The categories of rulings are five: obligatory (waajib), forbidden (muharram), encouraged (mustahabb), disliked (makrooh) and permissible (mubaah). These five rulings have been narrated with regard to fasting. We cannot list everything that comes under each of these rulings, but we will mention what we can.
 
1 – Obligatory fasts
 
(i)                The Ramadaan fast
 
(ii)              Making up missed Ramadaan fasts
 
(iii)            Expiatory fasts (expiation for accidental killing, expiation for zihaar (a form of jaahili divorce), expiation for having intercourse during the day in Ramadaan, and expiation for breaking an oath)
 
(iv)            Fasting for the pilgrim who does tamattu’ in Hajj if he does not have a sacrificial animal. “and whosoever performs the ‘Umrah in the months of Hajj, before (performing) the Hajj, (i.e. Hajj-at-Tamattu‘ and Al-Qiraan), he must slaughter a Hady such as he can afford, but if he cannot afford it, he should observe Sawm (fasts) three days during the Hajj and seven days after his return (to his home)” [al-Baqarah 2:196 – interpretation of the meaning].
 
(v)              Fasting in fulfilment of a vow
 
2 – Mustahabb (encouraged) fasts
 
(i)                Fasting the day of ‘Ashoora’
 
(ii)              Fasting the day of ‘Arafah
 
(iii)            Fasting on Mondays and Thursdays each week
 
(iv)            Fasting three days of each month
 
(v)              Fasting six days of Shawwaal
 
(vi)            Fasting most of the month of Sha’baan
 
(vii)          Fasting the month of Muharram
 
(viii)        Fasting alternate days – which is the best of fasting
 
All of these are proven in hasan and saheeh ahaadeeth, and may be found on this site.
 
3 – Makrooh (disliked) fasts
 
(i)                Singling out Friday for fasting – because the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Do not fast on a Friday unless you fast a day before or a day afterwards.” Agreed upon
 
(ii)              Singling out Saturday for fasting – because the Messenger (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Do not fast on Saturdays apart from days when you are obliged to fast, even if one of you cannot find anything other than grape stalks or the bark of a tree (to suck on, to make sure that he is not fasting).” Narrated by al-Tirmidhi, 744, who classed it as hasan. Also narrated by Abu Dawood, 2421; Ibn Maajah, 1726; classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in Irwa’ al-Ghaleel, 960.
 
Al-Tirmidhi said: What is meant by its being makrooh is that a man should not single out Saturday for fasting because the Jews venerate Saturday. End quote.
 
4 – Forbidden fasts
 
(i)                Fasting on Eid al-Fitr, Eid al-Adha and the days of Tashreeq, which are the three days after Eid al-Adha.
 
(ii)              Fasting on the “day of doubt” – which is the thirtieth of Sha’baan, if the sky was cloudy and the new moon could not be sighted. But if the sky was clear there can be no doubt.
 
(iii)            Fasts observed by women who are menstruating and bleeding following childbirth.
 
5 – Permissible fasts – these are fasts that do not come under any of the four headings mentioned above.
 
What is meant by permissible here is that there is no report enjoining or forbidding fasting on this day in particular, such as Tuesdays and Wednesdays, even though in principle, observing a voluntary fast is an act of worship that is encouraged.
 
See al-Mawsoo’ah al-Fiqhiyyah, 28/10-19; al-Sharh al-Mumti’, 6/457-483
 
And Allaah knows best.
 
.
« Last Edit: August 13, 2011, 02:50:03 PM by mabdullah » Logged
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« Reply #5 on: June 21, 2014, 05:17:22 AM »

بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ


Multiple intentions for fasting


1. To carry out the orders of Allah and to attain piety as Allah (Subhaanahu wa Ta’aala) said:

“O you who believe! Fasting is prescribed for you as it was prescribed for those before you, that you may become al-Muttaqun (pious)” (Al-Baqarah 2:183)


2. To get protection from Hell-Fire. Allah’s Messengers (Salla-Allaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said: “When a person fasts for a day, for the sake of Allah, Allah drives away the Hell-Fire from him to a distance of seventy years of traveling.” [Al-Bukhari: 4/52/93 and Muslim 6/2570 to 6/2572]


3. To expiate one’s past sins. Allah’s Messenger said: “Whoever observes Saum (fasting) during the month of Ramadan, out of sincere faith, and hoping to attain Allah’s Rewards, then all his past sins will be forgiven.” [Al-Bukhari 1/2/37 and 3/32/231 ]


4. To enter Paradise .Abu Umamah (Radhia-Allaahu ‘anhu) said: I asked the Prophet,’O Allah’s Messenger, guide me to a deed with which I may enter Paradise. “He (Salla-Allaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) replied,’ Observe fasting; there is nothing like it.’” [An-Nissai, Ibn Hibban, and al-Hakim]


5. To get the intercession on the Day of Judgment. “On the Day of Judgment, fasting and Qur’an will intercede for the person who observes fast and recites the Qur’an.” [Ahmed]



6.To get a granted invocation (supplication). Allah’s Messenger (Salla-Allaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said:’ Three kinds of invocations are to be granted; the invocation of the person who observes fast, the invocation of an oppressed person, and the invocation of a traveler.” [Al-Silsilah as-Sahiha no. 1797]


7. To enter through the gate of Ar-Rayyan on the Day of Judgement. Allah’s Messenger (Salla-Allaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said: “There is a gate of Ar-Rayyan on The Day of Resurrection and none except them will enter through it.” [Al-Bukhari 3/31/120, Muslim 5/2239 and 5/2240].


8. To receive the reward in full without reckoning. Allah’s Messenger (Salla-Allaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said:’ A man’s good acts are recompensed many times, from ten times to 700 times. Allah, the Exalted, says ‘But a fast is an exception because it is undertaken simply for My Sake) i.e.,there is no limit for it’s recompense) and I, Alone shall bestow the reward for it.’” [Muslim 6/2566 to 6/2568]
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« Reply #6 on: June 17, 2015, 02:09:07 PM »

سۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ



"يا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ كُتِبَ عَلَيْكُمُ الصِّيَامُ كَمَا كُتِبَ عَلَى الَّذِينَ مِنقَبْلِكُمْ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَتَّقُونَ .."
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