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Author Topic: Nawawi's 40 Hadith explanation  (Read 134578 times)
mabdullah
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« Reply #60 on: February 06, 2011, 01:22:28 PM »

بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

HADITH 37

  إِنَّ اللهَ كَتَبَ الْحَسَنَاتِ وَالسَّيِّئَاتِ، ثُمَّ بَيَّنَ ذلِكَ: فَمَنْ هَمَّ بِحَسَنَةٍ فَلَمْ يَعْمَلْهَا كَتَبَهَا اللهُ عِنْدَهُ حَسَنَةً كَامِلَةً، وَإِنْ هَمَّ بِهَا فَعَمِلَهَا كَتَبَهَا اللهُ عِنْدَهُ عَشْرَ حَسَنَاتٍ إِلَى سَبْعُمِائَةِ ضِعْفٍ إِلَى أَضْعَافٍ كَثِيرَةٍ، وَإِنْ هَمَّ بِسَيِّئَةٍ فَلَمْ يَعْمَلْهَا كَتَبَهَا اللهُ عِنْدَهُ حَسَنَةً كَامِلَةً، وَإِنْ هَمَّ بِهَا فَعَمِلَهَا كَتَبَهَا اللهُ سَيِّئَةً وَاحِدَةً

 رَوَاهُ الْبُخَارِيُّ وَمُسْلِمٌ

Ibn Abbas, radiyallahu 'anhu, reported that the Messenger of Allah, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, related from his Lord (glorified and exalted be He):
"Verily Allah has recorded the good deeds and the evil deeds." Then he clarified that: "Whosoever intends to do a good deed but does not do it, Allah records it with Himself as a complete good deed; but if he intends it and does it, Allah records it with Himself as ten good deeds, up to seven hundred times, or more than that. But if he intends to do an evil deed and does not do it, Allah records it with Himself as a complete good deed; but if he intends it and does it, Allah records it down as one single evil deed."
[Al-Bukhari & Muslim]
Each in his Sahih have thus related it in these words:
"So look! My brother, may Allah help us, and take note of how great is the kindness of Allah - may He be exalted! Reflect on this, how that His saying "with Himself" points to His great care with regard to it, and His saying "complete" is for emphasis, not to point to the intensity of His care with regard to it. With regard to the evil deed which one intended but then abandoned, He says: "Allah records it with Himself as a complete good deed", emphasising this by the word "complete" (kamilah); whereas if he performs it, He records it down as "one evil deed", where by the word "one" He emphasises its being made little of, since He does not emphasise it here by the word "complete". So to Allah be praise and grace. Glory be to Him! Our praises to Him we cannot count. With Allah is success."
________________________________________
background
This hadith is considered as a Hadith Qudsi even though the text of the hadith does not show that clearly or explicitly. The hadith with this text is a clarification from the part of Prophet Muhammad, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, about the way of recording deeds. There are other versions of this hadith that have been recorded by Al-Bukhari and Muslim in the same form of Hadith Qudsi and in a very clear manner. One of these is the following version that has been commented upon by Ibn Rajab:
Allah has said: "If My servant considers doing a sin, do not record it against him. If he acts upon it, record it as one sin. If he considers doing a good deed and does not do it, record it as one good deed, and if he actually does it, record it as 10 good deeds." [Recorded by Imam Muslim]
One may ask how this is considered a Hadith Qudsi where its text does not explicitly show so. The multiplication of good deeds and that the one who commits one sin is recorded as only one sin, is a well-known principle in Islam that has been emphasised in both the Qur'an and sunnah - Surah al-Baqarah, Ayah 245 and 261; Surah an-Nisa', Ayah 40; and in Surah al-'An'am, Ayah 160. Allah says:
Whoever shall come before Allah with a good deed will gain 10 times the like thereof, but whoever shall come with an evil deed will be requited with no more than the like thereof.
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lessons
What has been mentioned above is a general rule. However, there are some exceptions because the sin is sometimes considered greater due to certain reasons. One of these reasons is the honour of time or place such as the four months (al-'ashhor al-hurum). This is the view of Ibn Abbas (the narrator of the hadith) and Qutadeh. For the month of Ramadhan there are two claimed hadiths but which are considered not authentic according to Ibn Rajab who states that sins are considered greater during Ramadhan and during the Hajj (pilgrimage). This is stated in Surah al-Baqarah, Ayah 197.
In terms of place, for example Makkah, Allah says in Surah al-Hajj, Ayah 25:
And whoever is inclined to evil action therein (in Makkah) or to do wrong, him we shall cause to taste from a painful turmoil.
Because of this, a few of the companions of the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, used to avoid doing certain actions in Makkah.
Another criterion for considering sins as great is the nobility of the person who commits the sin. This is because, as Ibn Rajab says, since he is a person of knowledge of Allah and His attributes, his closeness to Allah should prevent him from committing sins. If he commits sins, his sins will be considered greater than normal people.
 
The hadith mentioned four types of deeds:
1.   Doing good deeds - the result will be a multiplication of rewards.
2.   Doing evil acts - this will be recorded as one sin for one sin.
3.   The intention of doing good deeds - this will be recorded even if it is not done as one deed. 'Intention' here means that we have a great eagerness and a very strong determination to do a certain deed - and not merely thoughts of doing it.
Some examples of this type, as mentioned by Ibn Rajab, are:
•   If someone has intended to wake up in the middle of the night to perform the night prayer but he did not do so because he overslept.
•   If someone intended to pray or fast.
•   If someone intended to do jihad or umra.
•   If someone intended to perform the Hajj (pilgrimage).
So if any Muslim intended to do any of the above and had a strong determination to do them, it will be recorded as if he has done them. But this does not compensate the obligation of doing them when there is an opportunity to do so.
4.   The intention of doing a bad deed or committing a sin without actually doing it. This means that one has made the decision to do it, as Ustaz Jamaludin Zarabozo puts it. Other Muslim scholars relate it to the intention (niyyah). And there is an overlap between intention and decision because when we decide, we have the intention.
Wherever we have an issue or principle where there are many versions of the hadith, scholars compare the text of the hadith. In another version that is narrated by Abu Hurairah, Allah says: "He gave up committing the sin for the cause and sake of Allah." Ibn Rajab says this implies that the interpretation of this portion of hadith is that the one who has the intention to do the evil act and is able to do it, refrained from doing so for the sake and fear of Allah. Ibn Rajab says this person will be rewarded for that. It will be considered a hasanah (a good deed) because refraining from doing that evil act with this good intention is really a good deed by itself.
Consequently, Ibn Rajab mentions other different situations:
a.   The one who decides or just has the intention to do the evil act but then he refrains from doing it because of his fear of the people or does not like to be blamed by them. Ibn Rajab says that some scholars say this person will be punished.
b.   The person decides to do the evil act but was not able to perform it because of external factors (qadar). For example, a person decides to break into a house to steal, but he does not succeed and runs away because a police car is driving around the area. Some scholars say that he will be punished though he did not steal.
c.   Someone who decides and has the intention to do the evil act, makes the effort but is not able to perform it because of his lack of strength or capabilities. Scholars say this person will be punished. For instance, if two Muslims fight each other with the intention of killing each other, as stated in the well-known hadith, both the killer and the one who has been killed will be in the Hellfire. The Companions asked: "O Messenger of Allah, this is the killer - what about the poor person who has been killed?" The Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, said he had the intention to kill his friend or brother but was not able to because he was killed himself.
d.   Someone has the intention to do an evil act and talks to others about it but does not do it. Some scholars say that he will be punished just because of his bad intention. Other scholars say he will not be punished unless the sin itself is the impermissible kind of speech like slander, backbiting or lying.
e.   Someone who has the intention to do an evil act but later on changes his mind because his eagerness to do the evil act has weakened and decreased.
One may ask whether this person is subject to punishment or not. Ibn Rajab says this situation can be classified into two categories:
i.   The intention to commit the sin was just a thought - it has not been placed or committed in the person's heart - and he dislikes or regrets the thought straightaway. Ibn Rajab says this person will be excused. For instance, if a person sees cool water during the hot month of Ramadhan and he simply has a thought of drinking but then refrains himself. This person will be forgiven because the place of the sin is not in his heart.
ii.   The evil thought has been placed in the heart and the person keeps thinking about it. Scholars say that this can be classified into two categories:
o   The action of the heart involves doubts about Allah's Oneness, the Prophethood or the Day of Resurrection. Scholars say this person will be punished. Ibn Rajab also says that there are other sins which are related to the heart such as loving what Allah hates or hating what Allah loves, arrogance, envy, and suspicions for no valid reason. All these are punishable.
o   The actions of the limbs such as adultery, stealing, drinking wine, killing etc. Ibn Rajab says in this category, if the person persists on doing such an act and has the eagerness and willingness, he will be punished. There is another view that says he will be excused because he has not actually done it. The third view is the same as the second view in that he is excused, but with one exception and that is if it is done in the al-Haram Mosque in Makkah.
f.   Someone committed a sin once and then has the intention of repeating it whenever possible. That is this person is persisting on disobedience and is subject to punishment because of his bad intention even if he does it years later.
 
In one version of the hadith, Allah says that for the one who commits a sin, Allah might record it merely as one sin, or He might omit the sin because of repentance by the sinner, or because of the sinner performing good deeds - as mentioned in Hadith 18: "Fear Allah wherever you may be; follow up an evil deed with a good one which will wipe (the former) out, and behave good-naturedly towards people."
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conclusion
In one of the versions of this hadith it says that the one who fails to be saved is of great loss. This means that the one whose bad deeds outweigh the good deeds is a failure. Why? After all this mercy and grace from Allah where Allah multiplies good deeds up to 700 times, after all the chances and opportunities that Allah gives us, if a person still persists on disobedience and commits evil acts and in the end his bad deeds outweighs his good ones, then he is truly a big sinner and transgressor. He has no intention of doing good deeds. He has no one to blame but himself.
There is a saying for Ibn Mas'oud: "Woe to the one whose sins outweigh his good deeds". The Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, said to his Companions: "Whom do you consider as a bankrupt?" They said: "The one who does not have a dinar or derham (money)." The Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, said: "The real bankrupt is the one who comes with mountains of good deeds but he also comes with many bad deeds that are related to attacking and harming the people." In this case, the bad deeds are not easily omitted because they are related to the rights of human beings. This person may wrong others by slander, backbiting, killing, etc. As a result, his good deeds will be taken from him in the Hereafter as a matter of just. In addition to that, the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, says part of the bad deeds of the people whom he has wronged will be added to his record and the result would be that he will be thrown into the Hellfire.
We need to imagine just how horrible the situation is. We need to reflect on this hadith and not to wrong, belittle or fail other Muslims or non-Muslims in the same way. We should also be kind to animals as the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, said that a woman will enter Hellfire because of her mistreatment of a cat. The Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, also mentions about a woman who is very pious and did good deeds but she annoyed and bothered her neighbours - she too is in the Hellfire.
Muslims need to be careful when it comes to dealing with other people. Unless we receive forgiveness from others, we will be held responsible for wrongdoings towards others. This has to do with our akhlaq and values as Muslims. We need to be concerned about this if we want to achieve any success in this life or the Hereafter.

« Last Edit: February 25, 2011, 05:00:41 PM by mabdullah » Logged
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« Reply #61 on: February 06, 2011, 01:22:44 PM »

بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

HADITH 38

 إِنَّ اللهَ تَعَالَى قَالَ: مَنْ عَادَى لِي وَلِيًّا فَقَدْ آذَنْتُهُ بِالْحَرْبِ، وَمَا تَقَرَّبَ إِلَيَّ عَبْدِي بِشَيْءٍ أَحَبَّ إِلَيَّ مِمَّا افْتَرَضْتُهُ عَلَيْهِ، وَلاَ يَزَالُ عَبْدِي يَتَقَرَّبُ إِلَيَّ بِالنَّوَافِلِ حَتَّى أُحِبَّهُ؛ فَإِذَا أَحْبَبْتُهُ كُنْتُ سَمْعَهُ الَّذِي يَسْمَعُ بِهِ، وَبَصَرَهُ الَّذِي يُبْصِرُ بِهِ، وَيَدَهُ الَّتِي يَبْطِشُ بِهَا، وَرِجْلَهُ الَّتِي يَمْشِي بِهَا، وَلَئِنْ سَأَلَنِي لأُعْطِيَنَّهُ، وَلَئِنْ اسْتَعَاذَنِي لأُعِيذَنَّهُ

 رَوَاهُ الْبُخَارِيُّ
 
 
Abu Hurairah, radiyallahu 'anhu, reported that the Messenger of Allah, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, said:
"Allah the Almighty has said: 'Whosoever acts with enmity towards a closer servant of Mine (wali), I will indeed declare war against him. Nothing endears My servant to Me than doing of what I have made obligatory upon him to do. And My servant continues to draw nearer to Me with supererogatory (nawafil) prayers so that I shall love him. When I love him, I shall be his hearing with which he shall hear, his sight with which he shall see, his hands with which he shall hold, and his feet with which he shall walk. And if he asks (something) of Me, I shall surely give it to him, and if he takes refuge in Me, I shall certainly grant him it.'"
[Al-Bukhari]
________________________________________
background
The translation of the term wali that is mentioned in the hadith is a closer servant (awliya') of Allah or a believer rather than a closer friend. There are many verses in the Qur'an that talk about the concept of wilayah. These verses talk about the qualities or attributes of awliya' and their status in the sight of Allah. In this hadith Allah mentions the status of the wali even before He talks about His attributes. This status is mentioned in the beginning (i.e. Allah will declare war against whoever acts with enmity towards one of His closer servants) and in the end (i.e. Allah will answer their du'a and will give them refuge). This shows the status of awliya' in the sight of Allah. In the middle of the hadith, Allah tells us the qualities of His closer servants.
The hadith also tells us that Allah loves those who are the closer servants to Allah. This is a natural result of what they do. Allah tells us about their actions upon which they deserved to be loved by Allah. We will see that there are two levels of servants of Allah: The first level is those who fulfill the obligations and avoid the prohibitions (muharramat). The second level is those who not only do this but also perform the preferable acts (nawafil).
 
The concept of wilayah (awliya' Allah) is based on the verses of the Qur'an and this hadith. In the Qur'an there are three verses in Surah Yunus - Ayah 62, 63 and 64.
No doubt verily the awliya' of Allah (the closer servants of Allah) no fear shall come upon them nor shall they grieve. Those who believed and used to fear Allah much, for them are the glad tidings in this life and the Hereafter.
Based on these three verses and this Hadith Qudsi, we can say that the concept of wilayah comprises of the following:
1.   The love of Allah
2.   Fearing of Allah
3.   Belief or faith in Allah and his Messengers
4.   Devotion, honesty, and sincerity
5.   Obedience to Allah and following His instructions - this include performing good deeds. This motif of this obedience is based on fear of Allah, repenting to Allah and submission to His will.
The origin of wilayah is closeness to Allah and the enmity is being far away from the path of Allah. Based on this, the awliya' of Allah are those who are obedient and perform the good deeds which make them closer to Allah. The enemies of Allah, on the other hand, are those who are evil doers. Their ill deeds distance themselves away from Allah and this will make them far from Allah's blessing, support, and love.
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lessons
In the first portion of the hadith ("Nothing endears My servant to Me than doing of what I have made obligatory upon him to do. And My servant continues to draw nearer to Me with supererogatory (nawafil) prayers so that I shall love him."), Allah classifies His servants into two categories:
1.   The first category are those who get closer to Allah by fulfilling the obligations and avoiding the prohibitions. This is a moderate level that has been described in the Qur'an as ashab alyameen. This is the minimum level of wilayah. In other words, wilayah is achieved just by fulfilling the obligations and avoiding the prohibitions. This level of wilayah is expected from all believers.
2.   The second category of people are those who are closer to Allah by being competent (al-sabiqeen) in their worship and effort and strive to be close to Allah. This category of people are not satisfied only of performing the obligations and avoiding the prohibitions but they go further by performing the preferable acts. They also avoid the non-preferable acts. Consequently, they will reach the degree of wara' and wilayah that will make Allah love them. Allah mentions this explicitly and that His love will be granted for these competent people.
Some of the early people (salaf) used to say that it is not a big matter whether you love; the biggest matter is to be loved by Allah. If you are loved by Allah, then you are granted with His mercy and blessings. You are going to be granted with His support and guidance.
The Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, used to say the following in his du'a: "O Allah I ask You that You love me and the love of those who love You and to enable me also to love every act and deed that may bring me closer to You". That is the reason why some of the early scholars say that the actions and the worship that are based on the love of Allah will continue and never be depressed or frustrated. Some others say that the one who loves Allah will not get fed up or bored of getting closer to Allah. He never feels that he is bored of doing good deeds and acts that will get him closer to Allah. Other scholars say that for the one who loves Allah, his heart is purified and he always remembers Allah. He always seeks and strives to do good deeds and acts that will get him closer to Allah. He does all of this with pleasure.
The early scholars also say that the one who loves Allah should obey Him, otherwise he is only claiming to love Allah. Scholars say that among the preferable acts (nawafil) that make a person become closer to Allah, is the nawafil al-salawat (the preferable prayers that the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, used to pray every day). Another thing is the recitation of the Qur'an and listening to it with full attention and understanding. Also part of the preferable acts is the remembrance of Allah where what the tongue says matches with what the heart believes, and the love of other good Muslims who are closer to Allah.
 
The second portion of this hadith ("When I love him, I shall be his hearing with which he shall hear, his sight with which he shall see, his hands with which he shall hold, and his feet with which he shall walk.") implies that, as Ibn Rajab says, whoever strives, struggles and makes the effort to get closer to Allah by doing the obligations and performing the preferable acts, Allah will get him closer to him, support him, and take him from one level into another until this servant of Allah reaches the degree of Ihsan where this believer will be able to practice muraqabeh. That is he worships Allah as if he sees Him, and his heart will be full with love of Allah.
Not only will Allah grant him love of Allah but he will also be helped to glorify Allah and granted with satisfaction. This will be strengthened by performing the preferable acts until the heart is full of these acts where nothing else will enslave or capture the heart. The heart is fully devoted to Allah. When that status is reached by the believer, the limbs of that servant will act only in accordance to what Allah loves. Then he will be seeing, hearing, and doing what Allah sees, hears and does. He will be walking towards what Allah wants and likes. The early salaf say that he cannot even commit a sin. Ibn Rajab quotes Ali who said that they used to believe that Omar's Satan was so frustrated to do any sin or disobedience. This is one of the secrets or the real fruits of tawhid. This is because "La ilaha illa Allah" means that we should only worship, glorify, obey, and love Allah and fear Him the most. When this realisation of tawhid is achieved, then he says the heart will have no place for anything that may displease Allah. What will be in the heart is only what Allah loves. In this case, that person will never commit a sin or any kind of disobedience. Committing sins takes place only if the person loves what Allah hates or that person hates what Allah loves. It also takes place when self interest is given a priority and dominance over the love of Allah. The result will be that the obligations of the tawhid will not be complete. The person will be led to delay obligations or to commit sins.
 
The third portion of this hadith ("And if he asks (something) of Me, I shall surely give it to him, and if he takes refuge in Me, I shall certainly grant him it.") Implies that the closer servant of Allah has a special status in the sight of Allah. This special status will lead to that whatever he asks of Allah, Allah will give him and his du'a will be attended to. If he seeks refuge from anything, he will be given that.
In Sunan Al-Imam Al-Nisa'ei, there is one chapter on iste'azeh. There are many hadiths in this chapter that tell us the sayings that the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, used to say to seek refuge of Allah to be saved from things such as poverty, ignorance, the turmoil of the grave, sadness and depression of this life, and various diseases. The closer servant of Allah is granted to be saved from the above mentioned things and many others. As Muslims we have to realise the importance of this portion of the hadith especially for those who are hearing the hadith for the first time. It is better that we learn from the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, what to seek refuge of Allah from. We should try to memorise some hadiths which are in the form of du'a. In that way we will be granted the love of Allah and we will be given the status of awliya'. Consequently, we will be granted with the bounty that whatever we ask for, Allah will give us. Moreover, we will be saved from the harms that are mentioned above.
 
The last thing that we need to point out is the misconception of wilayah. After the early centuries of Islam, this concept has been misunderstood to the extent that there came a time when the attributes of the wali is not what is mentioned in the Qur'an and hadith. It is actually by claims. We look at the person and his attitude and worship of Allah and we are shocked to see a big difference. We are surprised to see that the actions do not match with the Islamic teachings. How, then, can this person be a wali? He is not a closer servant of Allah. The real closer servant of Allah will not abuse wilayah and use it for promotion because it is not what he claims but it is in the heart and love of Allah. This should be corrected because until today some Muslims are still confused about wilayah. Imam Shatibi sets a number of criteria for wilayah or karamah because they are granted only if the person is close to Allah. Awliya'u Allah are shy to claim that they are closer to Allah because this contradicts with the idea of ikhlas (sincerity).
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conclusion
We notice that Imam Nawawi brings this hadith which states the main fundamental concepts or principles of Islam in a clear way. By studying this hadith, one comes to know what the concept of wilayah or closeness to Allah means and what he should do. We also know the status of awliya'.
This hadith is a warning to those who may harm believers in general or the closer servants of Allah in particular. Allah declares war against the one who acts with enmity towards His awliya' (closer servants). This is a message to all Muslims and people not to harm others or to be enemies with Allah by harming the believers. That is how the situation will be, if not in this life, it will be in the Hereafter. Moreover, Allah knows better what is in our favour and what is not in our favour. That's why sometimes the closer servants of Allah may ask for something and Allah does not attend to their du'a because the things they may ask for may cause them some harm . But still because of their du'a, there will be the blessings and mercy from Allah in similar situations. The blessings of du'a will be also granted in the Hereafter.
 

« Last Edit: February 25, 2011, 04:59:39 PM by mabdullah » Logged
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« Reply #62 on: February 06, 2011, 01:22:59 PM »

بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

HADITH 39

 إِنَّ اللهَ تَجَاوَزَ لِي عَنْ أُمَّتِي الْخَطَأَ وَالنِّسْيَانَ، وَمَا اسْتُكْرِهُوا عَلَيْهِ

 حَدِيثٌ حَسَنٌ رَوَاهُ ابْنُ مَاجَه وَالْبَيْهَقِيُّ وَغَيْرُهُمَا

 
Ibn Abbas, radiyallahu 'anhu, reported that the Messenger of Allah, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, said:
"Truly Allah has for my sake pardoned the mistakes and forgetfulness of my community, and for what they have done under force or duress."
[A fine hadith related by Ibn Majah, Al-Baihaqi and others]
________________________________________
background
What has been stated in this hadith has also been stressed and emphasised in the Qur'an. In Surah al-Baqarah, Ayah 286, it is stated:
"Our Lord, punish us not if we forget or fall into error."
(Another translation for the meaning of the ayah)
"Oh our Lord, do not take us to task if we forget or make mistakes."
Allah says in Surah al-Ahzab, Ayah 5:
And there is no sin on you concerning that in which you made a mistake, except in regard to what your hearts deliberately intended. And Allah is Ever Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.
Allah also says in Surah al-Nahl, Ayah 106:
Whosoever disbelieved in Allah after his belief, except him who is forced thereto and whose heart is at rest with faith or at certainty.
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lessons
Being excused for what is done mistakenly or out of forgetfulness does not mean that there will be no consequent rulings. This means that a person might be forgiven but he still has to take responsibility for his actions. The consequent rulings for doing something mistakenly or out of forgiveness can be classified into three categories:
1.   There are mistakes where there is no consequent ruling such as a person or a Muslim who eats during the day in the month of Ramadhan out of forgetfulness. The majority of scholars say that his fasting is still valid and he does not have to repeat that day. This opinion is based on the hadith that is related by Imam Al-Bukhari and Imam Muslim which states that "any Muslim who eats during Ramadhan out of forgetfulness will be excused and forgiven."
2.   There are consequent rulings to actions that are done out of mistakes or forgetfulness such as if someone kills a Muslim by mistake - as what happens nowadays in car accidents or accidents at work, etc. It is well-known by scholars that for such a person there is no consequent ruling. There is no kaffarah (expiation of sins) but he has to pay the fidyah as stated in the Qur'an. Another example is if someone caused harm or damage to the property or money of someone else by mistake. In this case the person is responsible and has to compensate for what he has damaged even though he is forgiven by Allah and is not being regarded as sinful.
3.   There are actions where there are different opinions among the Muslim scholars of whether there is a consequent ruling or not. Some scholars say that the person has a consequent ruling. Others will say that he is fully excused and has nothing to do. For example, if a person talked out of forgetfulness during his prayer. Does he have to repeat his prayer? Here we have different opinions among the scholars. Some will say he has to repeat while others will say he is going to be forgiven and excused.

Another example is that a person takes an oath or swears by Allah not to do something and then he does it out of mistake or because of forgetfulness. Is this person responsible? Some scholars will say he is not forgiven and he has to make kaffarah. Others will say that he is forgiven and need not make kaffarah. A third example is if a person who is muhrim - that is he intended to perform 'umrah or hajj and then by mistake he hunts or kills an animal. Is he forgiven (i.e. is this not considered a sinful act)? He is forgiven and will not be punished for that. But the issue is whether he has to pay for it and be responsible or not. This is again a debatable issue among the scholars. Ibn Rajab states that the person who acts out of forgetfulness or by mistake is excused and that the sinfulness will be removed because sinfulness is related to those who does it deliberately. But the ruling, whatever the responsibility is, is not meant by this hadith. The hadith does not mean that they are going to be excused from everything including any kind of responsibility or rulings. This is something very important to know because some Muslims have the misconception that they are totally excused and they do not have to bear any consequences.
 
In the situation where a person is forced to do something which is not acceptable in Islam, this ikrah or duress can be categorised, according to Ibn Rajab, into two categories:
1.   The person is powerless and has no choice to refuse doing an evil act or something which is not acceptable by shari'ah. Ibn Rajab says that he is excused.
2.   The person is forced to harm someone else. In this situation, we look at the issue from the perspective that he has the power over his actions and can refuse to do the harm but at the same time his intention is to remove the harm from himself rather than to harm the other person. What is the ruling in this case? The scholars say that there are certain cases where the Muslim should not do it (i.e. harm someone else) even if he is harmed himself, such as if a Muslim is forced to kill someone else. He is not allowed to do so because this is a major harm that Muslims should do their best to avoid.
But the scholars have different views regarding similar situations and actions. The first situation is that if a Muslim took an oath not to do something and then he is forced to do it. Some say that he is excused and he is allowed to do the thing that he promised not to do - he is excused and there is no ruling here. Other scholars say he is responsible and he should not do it. If it is out of his choice, this goes under the first category. The same if someone is forced or threaten or even beaten and he has been ordered to cause damage to the property of someone else. Scholars say since he has the choice, he has to do his best not to cause the damage. The issue here is that if he does it, scholars say that he will be excused in the sense that he is not sinful but he still remains responsible for the damage that he caused.
The second situation where Muslim scholars differ is prohibited acts such as drinking wine. Some scholars say if a person is forced, then he is excused. Other scholars say though he is forced, he is not allowed to do it.

Another view or category is the distinction between speech and actions. In terms of speech, a person might be forced and allowed to say something that is not allowable. The scholars say he should not practice taqiyah. Taqiyah means to say or do something which you do not believe in and are not satisfied with. This only applies to sayings and not actions. Regarding this issue there is an agreement among the Muslim scholars. They say that whoever is forced to say something that is not allowed in shari'ah, then he will be allowed to say it - he will not be regarded or considered as 'saying' it. There is another condition that the scholars set. They say that whenever a person is put into ikrah or duress, the duress should be definite and most likely to happen and not just something the person imagines or assumes. He has to be sure.
 
What is mentioned in this hadith should not be abused. Some Muslims today abuse what the hadith implies by using it as an excuse to not uphold a responsibility or to break a promise. Allah knows our intentions and we should not take what is mentioned in the hadith to get away from the responsibility of fulfilling a commitment or an obligation.
________________________________________
conclusion
Islam encourages ihsan, quality, excellence at work, and a sense of responsibility. At the same time, Islam discourages recklessness, carelessness, and heedlessness. However, Islam takes into account the nature of human beings and their shortcomings. It also takes into consideration the unavoidable situations that they may undergo. It should also be noticed that Islam calls for taking lessons from our mistakes and our experience with others. That's why the Prophet Muhammad, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, says a Muslim should not be bitten from the same hole twice.
We should also be aware (based on Hadith 32) not to harm others. That hadith says: "There should be neither harming nor reciprocating harm." According to this hadith we have to minimise the size of the harm and the consequences of the mistakes as much as possible. Even though the person might be excused and forgiven by one of these factors that are mentioned in the hadith, he still has to bear the full responsibility of his actions or deeds.
We should look at this in a positive way. Islam does not encourage people to become reckless, careless, or to feel that they are unaccountable. We should look at the hadith as a total picture of the situation and not to look at it in an isolated manner. We should have a complete view of what Islam has already established or stressed such as excellence in our performance, accountability and many other issues that we have to observe. But because we are human beings and subject to committing mistakes out of forgetfulness, Islam still leaves room for these human shortcomings and makes it possible for them to be excused and forgiven - but they have to bear some of the consequences.
« Last Edit: February 25, 2011, 04:58:29 PM by mabdullah » Logged
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« Reply #63 on: February 06, 2011, 01:23:14 PM »

بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

HADITH 40

 أَخَذَ رَسُولُ اللهِ صلی الله عليه و سلم بِمَنْكِبِي فَقَالَ: كُنْ فِي الدُّنْيَا كَأَنَّكَ غَرِيبٌ أَوْ عَابِرُ سَبِيلٍ. وَكَانَ ابْنُ عُمَرَ رَضِيَ اللهُ عَنْهُمَا يَقُولُ: إِذَا أَمْسَيْتَ فَلاَ تَنْتَظِرِ الصَّبَاحَ، وَإِذَا أَصْبَحْتَ فَلاَ تَنْتَظِرِ الْمَسَاءَ، وَخُذْ مِنْ صِحَّتِكَ لِمَرَضِكَ وَمِنْ حَيَاتِكَ لِمَوْتِكَ

 رَوَاهُ الْبُخَارِيُّ


 
 
On the authority of Ibn 'Umar, radiyallahu 'anhuma, who said: The Messenger of Allah, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, took me by the shoulder and said:
"Be in this world as though you were a stranger or a traveler/wayfarer."
Ibn 'Umar used to say:
"When evening comes, do not expect (to live till) morning, and when morning comes, do not expect (to live till) evening. Take from your health (a preparation) for your illness, and from your life for your death."
[Al-Bukhari]
________________________________________
background
There are so many verses in the Qur'an that make comparisons between the worldly life and the Hereafter. The priority and emphasis is made on the Hereafter where it is described as the real life and the worldly life as a life of nothing but entertainment and amusement. Allah says in Surah al-An'am, Ayah 32:
And the worldly life is not but amusement and diversion but the home of Hereafter is best for those who fear Allah. Will you not then reason?
And in Surah al-'Ankabut, Ayah 64, Allah expresses the same meaning mentioned in the previous ayah. The same meaning is also expressed in other ayahs such as in Surah Muhammad Ayah 36, Surah Yunus Ayah 26, Surah al-Kahf Ayah 45 -46, Surah Fater Ayah 5, Surah al-A'la Ayah 16-17, and Surah al-Isra' Ayah 18-19.
In all of the above mentioned ayahs, Allah draws the attention of the believers toward the Hereafter to remind them that it is the final destination and the real life and enjoyment of the believers. Allah also comments on this life as nothing but amusement and diversion. It is a life of a test and trial. It is a life used as a means of getting us forward to the Hereafter.
 
In Islam there is no nullification of life as some people may misunderstand. There is a balance and adjustment between this life and the Hereafter. There should be no polarization or what Islam is - rahbanah or extremism. There should be no conflict between this life and the next life. There is a kind of moderate conception about this life and the Hereafter. Islam also makes it an obligation that the believers cultivate the earth and make it as an amanah for them to establish the Islamic civilization which is based on Tawhid, good morals and values. This civilization is guided by revelation. This is considered an obligation.
Furthermore, the concept of 'ubudiyyah (worshipping Allah) is a comprehensive concept where everything we do in this life, if it is guided by revelation and is done with a good intention, becomes a form of worship even though it is a worldly matter. If the thing is done in accordance with the teachings of shari'ah and the main guidelines of revelation, then there will be the adjustment and the harmony between this life and the Hereafter. The Muslim's life in this world and the Hereafter should be in total submission and devotion to the will of Allah. The Muslim should establish a good life, improve his way of life and aim for the Hereafter at the same time. By doing so, he is obeying Allah, being guided by His guidance and instructions. He will still enjoy this life but at the same time whatever he does will be recorded by Allah as his good deeds. Consequently, he will get the pleasure of Allah.
________________________________________
lessons
The hadith starts with Abdullah bin 'Umar (Ibn 'Umar), radiyallahu 'anhuma, saying: "The Messenger of Allah, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, took me by the shoulder and said." Here we can learn many lessons as teachers and educators. We have to show care and attention to our audience if we want to be good educators or teachers. This can be achieved in many different ways. The Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, used to follow different approaches when dealing with his audience. Sometimes he called upon the name of a certain person and in other times, like in this hadith, he gets closer to the person he is speaking to by putting his hand on his shoulder.
Sometimes the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, will start his advice or teaching with a statement that attracts the attention of the audience . For example, we can see this in a previous hadith (19) that has been said on the authority of Ibn 'Abbas when the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, said "O young man, I will teach you some words (of wisdom)." Sometimes the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, used the questioning style as we saw in a number of previous hadiths. The questioning style plays a significant role in conveying the message and attracting the attention of the audience. The Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, asks the question where the answer to that question is only known to him. The audience and the addressee will be more keen and motivated to know the answer.
In general, the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, used all of these approaches or means to show care to the addressee, to attract their attention, and also to stress or emphasise the meaning he wanted to convey. This is also sometimes achieved by repeating what he says. Sometimes he would draw diagrams (e.g. a circle or a square) on the ground. Other times he would use analogy to clarify or simplify a certain concept. All of the above mentioned ways can be adopted as techniques for educating.
 
The Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, tells the believers how to deal with this life, and as usual he offers his audience with more than one choice. In this hadith, the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, is giving two choices or levels with regards to living in this world:
1.   To be as a stranger

This is usually the easier choice. The Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, used the analogy 'to be as a stranger' because, as Ibn Rajab points out, the stranger is usually prepared to eventually go back to his original place or home town. His heart will always long for his home. His main concern will be to be in preparation to do whatever possible and beneficial for returning. A stranger does not look like the other people in his current environment - he is different. Similarly, the believer should be different from those who only care about this life and worldly matters. He should rid himself of the yearning for this materialistic world, a world where some people do not care about the spiritual aspects and the Hereafter. As believers, we should be different from the 'people of this world'.

Ibn Al-Qayyim, a famous Muslim scholar, says that a Muslim is a stranger amongst the disbelievers and the Mu'min is a stranger amongst the Muslims, and the Muhsin is a stranger amongst the Mu'mins. This means that there are different levels of being a stranger: the lowest level is Islam, the second level is Iman and the third level is Ihsan. [Refer to Hadith 2]
2.   To be a traveler or wayfarer, traveling along a path

This is a higher level than the stranger. The traveler is always traveling day and night without stopping, He is heeding towards his final destination. Even if he stops for a while, this is to provide himself with the needed power to continue his journey and to go farther until he achieves his main objective. A stranger might obtain and keep more things than he actually needs but the traveler takes as little as possible in terms of luggage or other things. Similarly, the believer who is in such a situation has a main objective or concern - and that is not to take more than what he needs (i.e. he should not be weighed down with materialistic things or wealth).

Another thing is the traveler needs to know that he is traveling on the right path, the straight path. For this, he needs to obtain the right knowledge (ilm). He also needs good, helpful companions to help him on his way.

Some scholars ask how would a person be contented with this life where the day distorts the month and the month distorts the year and the year will distort the age? That is how this person will be satisfied with this life if his age will lead him to his final destination and his life will lead him to death. One scholar said when a person looks back at his life since his awareness of this life until this moment, it will seem like a blink of an eye. What remains for the rest of his life is also like that 'blink of an eye'. If that is the case, the person should be careful and wise up.
 
Ibn 'Umar says: "When evening comes, do not expect (to live till) morning, and when morning comes, do not expect (to live till) evening." This saying is like an explanation to the hadith. Al-Bukhari mentions it because the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, is talking to Ibn 'Umar.
If one still did not understand the message, Ibn 'Umar continues by saying: "Take from your health (a preparation) for your illness, and from your life for your death." This means that today you may be healthy, but you never know about the future. It is then wise and better to perform good deeds and to be closer to Allah now before being unhealthy or before dying. This meaning has been stressed by the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, in other hadiths where he asks us to utilise our time and to do beneficial things whether in this life or in the Hereafter. We can relate to Imam Nawawi's other hadiths that have been previously mentioned in which certain charitable acts have been emphasised.
 
The impact of this hadith on the life of Muslims
1.   To increase the sense of responsibility in terms of our duties towards Allah, the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, relatives, and the community members.
2.   To motivate the Muslims to enjoin what is good and to forbid what is evil.
3.   To be closer to Allah at all times.
4.   To minimise weaknesses, shortcomings and sinful acts.
5.   To maximise self-accountability and self-reckoning.
6.   To emphasise taqwa and fearing Allah the Almighty.
7.   To be safeguarded from being misled or enslaved by self-interests, desires and worldly temptations.
Challenges that threaten the above mentioned concept of dealing with this life in a good way
1.   The promotion of the materialistic aspects of life, especially by the media.
2.   The complexity of contemporary life where there are more problems, and the engagement in life activities without proper balance.
3.   Rapid life changes due to technology advancement and progress which in turn creates other problems, such as:
•   Adjustment between the old lifestyle and the new lifestyle.
•   The emergence of new values which lead to conflicts between sets of values.
•   Technology misuse.
•   The increase of social ills.
•   The weak religious awareness and education or spiritual training in the Islamic world (i.e. tazkiyyah).
4.   The challenges of modernity.
5.   The challenges of globalisation and promotion of imposed corrupted western values.
________________________________________
conclusion
These challenges add to the size of the responsibilities that face the Muslims who want to implement this hadith in their lives. Most of these challenges are addressed in previous hadiths. This hadith contains a helpful piece of advice for every single Muslim which helps us to deal with this life in a proper way by offering us two choices or levels. We need to understand all the above mentioned issues. This will help us to apply the hadith in a more positive way.
Some Muslims throughout history misunderstood this hadith. Consequently, they misunderstood the Islamic teachings regarding dealing with life. They understood it in a negative way. We also find other Muslims who are affected by the challenges of modernity and the excessive tension that is given to this life. We find minimum levels of good deeds. They are overwhelmed by the advancement of technology and end up with little iman or spirituality. The Islamic standpoint that should be understood is that there is no conflict or opposition between this life and the Hereafter. On the contrary, Islam establishes harmony where a Muslim lives in this life but his heart is devoted to Allah and the Hereafter. Whatever he does is with the objective of pleasing Allah and is to be done in accordance with the teachings of Islam and the guidance of revelation.
 

« Last Edit: February 25, 2011, 04:57:26 PM by mabdullah » Logged
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« Reply #64 on: February 06, 2011, 01:23:31 PM »

بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

HADITH 41

  لاَ يُؤْمِنُ أَحَدُكُمْ حَتَّى يَكُونَ هَوَاهُ تَبْعاً لِمَا جِئْتُ بِهِ

حَدِيثٌ حَسَنٌ صَحِيحٌ رَوَيْنَاهُ فِي كِتَابِ الْحُجَّةِ بِإِسْنَادِ صَحِيحٍ

 
Abu Muhammad 'Abdullah bin Amr bin al-'As, radiyallahu 'anhu, reported that the Messenger of Allah, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, said:
"None of you (truly) believes until his desire or inclination is in accordance with what I have brought or subservient to what I came with."
[A fine and genuine hadith which was related by al-Maqdidsi in his Book of Hujjah]
________________________________________
background
Imam Nawawi stated that the sanad (chain of authorities) of this hadith is authentic. However, many other scholars, including Ibn Rajab, stated that there are many defects in the chain of authorities. Sometimes the scholars consider a hadith as weak but this does not mean that what is stated in the hadith is weak. The meaning of this hadith has been emphasised in the Qur'an and strengthened by other hadiths. Allah says in Surah al-Nisa' Ayah 65:
But no, by your Lord, they can have no Faith, until they make you (O Muhammad, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam) judge in all disputes between them, and find in themselves no resistance against your decisions, and accept them with full submission.
In Surah al-Ahzab Ayah 36, Allah says:
It is not for a believer, man or woman, when Allah and His Messenger have decreed a matter that they should have any option in their decision.
Ustaz Jamaludin Zarabozo points out that there are sufficient authentic and acceptable evidences to prove what this hadith states. The main point that this hadith makes is that a believer will not be considered as fulfilling the obligatory level of faith or iman until he follows what the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, has said - i.e. he loves what the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, commanded him to do and hates what the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, prohibited or made illegal.
________________________________________
lessons
It is an obligation on every single believer to love what Allah loves and to hate what Allah hates to a degree that will motivate them to fulfill his or her obligations. If that love is increased above the level which will lead to fulfilling the preferable acts (mandoub), this is considered an additional preferable level. At the same time, he should hate or dislike what Allah hates or dislikes to the extent that will lead him to avoid all the prohibitions. If that level leads him to avoid what needs to be avoided, then that is an additional level that Allah will reward him for.
In the two Sahihs of Al-Bukhari and Muslim it is related that the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, said: "None of you will be truly a believer until I become more beloved to him than himself, his children, his family, and all the people." The true love necessitates that one has to follow whatever has been commanded by Allah and the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, as stated in Surah al-Imran Ayah 31-32:
Say (O Muhammad sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam): "If you (really) love Allah then follow me, Allah will love you and forgive your sins. And Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful." Say (O Muhammad sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam): "Obey Allah and the Messenger." But if they turn away, then Allah does not like the disbelievers.
The true believer is one who loves Allah and the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, truly and sincerely from his or her heart, and loves whatever Allah loves and whatever the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, loves, and hates whatever Allah hates and whatever the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, hates or dislikes. This love will lead him to act in accordance with these likes and dislikes. If someone acts in a different way, the obligatory love to Allah and the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, is not complete and has a defect. In this case, he has to repent and do his best to fulfill all the obligatory levels to achieve complete love to Allah and towards His Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam.
 
All the sins or disobedience that take place as a result of desires happen because self-desire is given a higher degree or outweighs the love of Allah and the love of the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam. Allah attributes this in the Qur'an to the disbelievers. In Surah al-Qasas Ayah 50, Allah says:
But if they answer you not, then know that they only follow their own lusts. And who is more astray than the one who follows his own lusts, without guidance from Allah?
Allah also commanded one of his Prophets not to follow his desires. In Surah Saad Ayah 26, Allah says:
And follow not your desire, for it will mislead you from the Path of Allah.
Allah has made restraining desires one of the conditions to be fulfilled in order to enter Paradise. Allah says in Surah al-Nazi'at Ayah 40-41:
But as for him who feared standing before his Lord, and restrained himself from impure evil desires and lusts. Verily, Paradise will be his abode.
 
Anyone who does anything that contradicts with the Message that Allah sent His Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, with and violates any of the instructions or prohibitions, is a person who is following his own desires. It should be noted that desire has to do with likes and dislikes. Likes and dislikes are not the main goal. Scholars say that the main point here is not to be influenced by those likes or dislikes. If someone likes something that violates the shari'ah, this person is following his own desires. If that person is influenced by those likes or dislikes, this will lead to an act. The act will lead to forms of actions which either pleases or displeases Allah. In both cases, the person has full responsibility and accountability. The responsibility and accountability are not for the likes or dislikes. They are for what the likes or dislikes lead him to.
It is known that following the desires is the reason behind many evil acts and it is also the basis for bid'ah (heresy). When someone follows his desires without evidence or truth, this will lead him to fall into bid'ah easily. And those who are misled by their desires are the first to follow misconceptions, as stated by many scholars. Whenever there is a misconception they easily fall into problems or troubles.
 
There are signs of following desires. One of the signs is neglecting or turning away from seeking beneficial 'ilm (the needed knowledge of Islam). Another sign of following desires is turning one's back from the guidance that the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, has come with.
 
Al-Imam Al-Shatibi, in his book Al-Muwafaqat, volume number 2, p. 168, mentions that the objective of shari'ah is to keep Muslims away from desires so that the believer will be a servant to Allah willingly and become an honest servant of Allah. He also states that following one's desires with regard to the rulings of shari'ah is a problematic issue where a person might use tricks to fulfill his desires, using deception in order to evade the rulings of shari'ah.
 
With regards to how one can control and deal with one's desires, firstly Al-Imam Al-Shatibi says that the main thing is to make the law of shari'ah and its rulings as a judging authority that every Muslim should respect, appreciate, and comply with. Secondly, some other scholars mention feeling Allah's presence, seeking knowledge, and the continuance remembrance of Allah are the ways of controlling self-desires. Thirdly, Imam Ibn Qayyim mentions about 50 ways of dealing with self-desires. Even those who are already influenced by self-desire can use any of these ways to get rid of their self-desires. He mentions this in his book Rawdat al-Muhebin (Garden of Lovers). The following are 15 selected ways:
1.   Strong resolution.
2.   Patience.
3.   Self-courage.
4.   Considering consequences.
5.   Reflecting that Muslims have been created for a great mission which cannot be fulfilled except by controlling one's desires.
6.   Not to be enslaved by self-desires.
7.   To know that Satan is the enemy that gets through the servants of Allah. Satan uses desires to influence people.
8.   To know that following self-desires will lead to someone's destruction and punishment by Allah.
9.   To know that fighting desires by making an effort in order not to be influenced by the desires is one of the greatest forms of jihad. Fighting desires is the essential message of Islam. Muslims are required to make every effort to adhere to the teachings of the Qur'an and Sunnah.
10.   To know that the one who lets the desires take over and lead him will spoil his intellectual opinion.
11.   To know that following desires will weaken the eagerness for performing good deeds. The opposite is also true in this case - that is, not following desires leads to strengthening one's motivation to perform good deeds.
12.   To know that not being misled by desires will lead to the honour in this life and the Hereafter.
13.   To know that following desires is the main cause of the spiritual heart disease and the remedy of the disease is to not follow desires. We have to make jihad to fight desires otherwise we will not be able to fight our enemies.
14.   To know that seeking knowledge and feeding it by performing the preferable acts will strengthen one's faith.
15.   To know that we need to be enlightened by the Qur'an and Sunnah. This requires us to make the effort to recite the Qur'an in order to know the meaning and the wisdom behind the ayahs.
________________________________________
conclusion
Though this hadith is considered a weak hadith, it states a very important meaning: in order to fulfill one's faith, one has to make a continuous effort to control his or her self-desires and to like what Allah and the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, like, and to dislike what Allah and the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, dislikes. This is actually a very important task which we are required to do in order to adhere to the path of Allah. The result will be attaining Allah's pleasure and being honoured in this life and the Hereafter by being a truly honest, sincere servant of Allah.
Muslims must be sincere in their efforts to fight self-desires. The issue is not to like or dislike but what the result of this likes or dislikes is. For instance, if someone is sleeping before dawn in the early morning and then he hears the call for Fajr prayer but is too lazy or sleepy to wake up to perform the salah, this is considered following his self-desires. Everyone likes to sleep but the problem is the result of this leads us to delay or miss the Fajr prayer ( a wajibat).
Another example is food. There are many things that we can eat but if they are not halal, we have to refrain from consuming them. A third example is the love of money. To like money is one thing but to be misled by money is a problem because this will lead the heart to be enslaved to money and the worldly life. This explains why the scholars say that committing sins is actually a result of desires.
We should make the shari'ah as the judging authority for everything we do. Before we do something, we should ask ourselves: Is this act based on a sound reason? If the answer is not, then we are following the desires. This is why Allah labels the Qur'an as Al-Furqan or as the criterion that distinguishes what is right and what is wrong.

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« Reply #65 on: February 06, 2011, 01:24:45 PM »

بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

HADITH 42

 قَالَ اللهُ تَعَالَى: يَا ابْنَ آدَمَ، إِنَّكَ مَا دَعَوْتَنِي وَرَجَوْتَنِي، غَفَرْتُ لَكَ عَلَى مَا كَانَ مِنْكَ وَلاَ أُبَالِي، يَا ابْنَ آدَمَ، لَوْ بَلَغَتْ ذُنُوبُكَ عَنَانَ السَّمَاءِ ثُمَّ اسْتَغْفَرْتَنِي، غَفَرْتُ لَكَ، يَا ابْنَ آدَمَ، إِنَّكَ لَوْ أَتَيْتَنِي بِقُرَابِ الأَرْضِ خَطَايَا، ثُمَّ لَقِيْتَنِي لاَ تُشْرِكُ بِي شَيْئاً، لأَتَيْتُكَ بِقُرَابِهَا مَغْفِرَةً

 رَوَاهُ التَّرْمِذِيُّ وَقَالَ: حَدِيثٌ حَسَنٌ صَحِيحٌ

 


 
 
From Anas, radiyallahu 'anhu, who said: I heard the Messenger of Allah, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, say:
"Allah the Almighty has said: 'O son of Adam, so long as you call upon Me, and hope in Me, I shall forgive you for what you have done, and I shall not mind. O son of Adam, were your sins to reach the clouds in the sky and were you then to ask forgiveness of Me, I shall forgive you. O son of Adam, were you to come to Me with an earthful of sins and were you then to face Me, without having associated anything with Me, I shall grant you an earthful of pardon.'"
[Recorded by Al-Tirmidhi, who said that it is a good and sound hadith]
________________________________________
background
The main message of this hadith is calling upon Muslims to repent sincerely to Allah and to seek His forgiveness.
________________________________________
lessons
There are three means or ways which enable a Muslim to be forgiven by Allah.
1.   The first one is al-du'a which means to supplicate Allah. Allah says in Surah Ghafir Ayah 60:
And your Lord said: Call upon me, I will respond to you.
The Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, said: "Supplication is the essence of worship" [Al-Tirmidhi]. The Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, also said: "Supplicate to Allah as if you are certain about His response." Supplication is guaranteed that Allah will attend to or respond to it when certain conditions are fulfilled. At the same time there are other things that a Muslim should avoid doing in order for his supplication to be answered. The conditions of supplication have been discussed in previous hadiths. The most important thing is the full concentration and attention of the heart and to have full hope that Allah will respond to that du'a and not to rush it.

Muslims have to practice supplication frequently because it is a continuous process. Among the things that a Muslim asks Allah in his supplication are to forgive his sins, to be saved from the Hell-Fire and to be among those who enter Paradise. Muslims have to make du'a with full hope that there is a response. Allah says in a Hadith Qudsi: "I am as My servant expects of Me." [Muslim]. The Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, says in another hadith: "No Muslim who supplicates a supplication, that does not contain any sin or cutting of relations, Allah will grant him one of three things: either Allah will immediately respond to his supplication, or He may keep or store the answer for the Hereafter, or He will turn away from him an equivalent amount of evil or harm." The Companions asked what if they keep requesting Allah. The Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, replied: "Then Allah shall give you even both." [Imam Ahmad].
 
2.   The second means that leads us to receive Allah's forgiveness is istighfar (seeking forgiveness), even if someone has committed many sins. What is meant by seeking forgiveness is the istighfar that is linked to repentance which in turn also necessitates that the Muslim gives up committing sins and does not persist on doing them. Istighfar is a form of worship. The Muslim has to do and perform a lot of istighfar every day. Allah commanded us to make istighfar and praised those who perform istighfar. Allah says in Surah al-Zumar Ayah 53:
O My servants, who have transgressed against themselves! Despair not of the Mercy of Allah. Verily, Allah forgives all sins. Truly He is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.
There are many forms of istighfar. There is what the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, taught his Companions to say. It is also narrated that the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, used to seek forgiveness from Allah more than seventy times a day, and in some narration more than one hundred times a day. Consequently, Muslims are recommended and required to do istighfar and seek the forgiveness of Allah at least one hundred times a day. The best statement of forgiveness is the statement that is narrated by the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, when he said: "O Allah: You are my Lord. There is no God but You. You created me and I am Your servant. I am following Your covenant and promise to the best of my ability. I seek refuge in You from the evils that I have done. I profess to You Your bounties upon me and I confess my sins. Forgive me for no one forgives sins except You." The Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, says: "Whoever says this statement with certainty concerning it in the daytime and dies that day before the evening, he is one of the inhabitants of Paradise; and whoever says this statement with certainty concerning it during the night and dies that night before the morning, he is one of the inhabitants of Paradise." [Al-Bukhari]

Istighfar is recommended to be practiced by true and close servants of Allah and every Muslim. They are recommended to do so in the morning, preferably after the Fajr prayers, and in the evening until the sunset. This should be part of the supplications that they perform day and night. Allah says in Surah al-Nisa' Ayah 110:
And whoever does evil or wrongs himself but afterwards seeks Allah's Forgiveness, he will find Allah Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.
 
3.   The third cause or means of seeking Allah's forgiveness is Tawhid. Tawhid means that a Muslim should worship Allah alone. Allah should be worshiped without associating or ascribing any partners with Him. Allah says in Surah al-Nisa' Ayah 116:
Verily! Allah forgives not the setting up partners (in worship) with Him, but He forgives whom He wills sins other than that, and whoever sets up partners in worship with Allah has indeed strayed far away.
Tawhid, as the scholars say, melts away sins. Through fulfilling all the obligations of Tawhid, Muslims are going to be forgiven and rewarded. In a previous hadith in this collection of Imam Nawawi's Forty Hadith, we discussed the importance of the realisation of of the idea of Tawhid where Muslims have to love, fear, and glorify Allah the most. By Tawhid, Muslims seek refuge only in Allah and ask support and help from only Him. All of these great actions of Tawhid, which means that the heart becomes fully devoted to Allah, enable the Muslims to be true believers and Muwahideen. Only then Muslims will become enlightened, inspired, and their iman or faith will be strengthened and their sins will be forgiven. By realising the idea of Tawhid, the Muslim also minimises the chances of committing sins because his heart is fully devoted to Allah.
Tawhid is the greatest essence of the Message of every Prophet. All the Prophets, peace be upon them, were sent with the Message of Tawhid - that is Allah is the only One Who deserves to be worshipped and to be totally obeyed. Unfortunately, many Muslims today do not observe the realisation of Tawhid. Many Muslims violate Tawhid, for example, there are some groups of Muslims that supplicate and slaughter for dead Muslims. By doing these acts of shirk (associating someone with Allah), they are violating the most important messages of Islam and that is the realisation of Tawhid.

If we want to be good Muslims to Allah, we should follow the way that awliya' Allah (closer servants of Allah) followed. We should follow their ways and practices as mentioned in Hadith 38. They had good morals, they loved Allah, feared Him, had total belief or faith in Allah and his Messengers, and they were obedient to Allah and followed His instructions - this included performing good deeds. This obedience was based on fear of Allah, repenting to Allah and submission to His will. Moreover, they were characterised with devotion, honesty, and sincerity.

If we want to do it in the right way we should adhere to what is mentioned above and act as the awliya' Allah acted when they were alive. Allah tells us in the Qur'an that this was what led the people of Noah to shirk when they started glorifying and giving their righteous dead people a higher status than they deserved. This led them to worshipping these dead people later on to the extent that some of them made idols of these famous figures. This eventually led to their destruction by Allah.

Because of misconceptions or the misunderstanding of the essence of the Message of Tawhid, many Muslims today carry out bad or prohibited acts. Some of them may be excused because of one reason or another, but these are terrible acts that displease Allah and lead to shirk. This is very risky because many Muslims who fall into such categories must rethink about what they do. They should repent to Allah and seek His forgiveness because He is the One who we must seek forgiveness from. He is the one who we should supplicate to and He is the one who we should obey and count on.
 
The realisation of Tawhid is very important for all Muslims. This is the last portion of the hadith. Moreover, it is the last hadith in Imam Nawawi's collection. This is very significant for us as Muslims since this last portion summarises the most important thing in Islam and that is Tawhid. It is a message from Allah to all Muslims to make sure that their Tawhid is sincere and pure. It is important to realise that they should not ascribe any partners with Allah. By doing so, they are assured that they will receive the forgiveness of Allah even if they have committed other sins.
To realise Tawhid Muslims should fulfill all obligations towards Allah by fully submitting to His will, worshiping Him, obeying Him and following His guidance and revelation and to avoid the following:
•   Avoiding all forms of shirk, whether sayings or actions apparent or hidden.
•   They should also avoid disobedience or committing sins because sins weaken Tawhid.
•   Avoiding riya' (doing things for self-interest and to please others and not for the sake of Allah).
•   Muslims should also avoid bid'ah or heresy because this will lead to the weakening of Tawhid.
•   Avoiding all forms of hypocrisy specially in repeated actions which are considered as traits of the Munafiqun such as: failing to keep a promise, failing to be entrusted, lying, transgression in quarrels and disputes. In general, Muslims should avoid all illegal acts that will lead to dishonesty, insincerity, and transgression.
________________________________________
conclusion
This hadith mentions three ways which lead to Allah's forgiveness. It should be noted that these are not the only ways. Muslim scholars mention other means and ways of receiving forgiveness, as we have seen in previous hadiths, such as running into hardships, being put on trial, sickness, patience, the torture in the grave, avoiding the major sins, the horrible situations on the Day of Judgement, following the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, to perform the pillars of Islam, fasting specific days such as the day of Ashura' and the day of Arafah, and the intercession (shafa'ah) of the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, and the intercession of the believers (which is conditional to Allah's permission and He being pleased with the person).


 
« Last Edit: February 24, 2011, 12:53:51 PM by mabdullah » Logged
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« Reply #66 on: February 06, 2011, 01:35:46 PM »

Imam Nawawi

Imam Muhyi al-Din Abu Zakariya Yahya bin Sharaf al-Nawawi, for short Imam Nawawi, was born in the village of Nawa in the vicinity of Damascus in 631 A.H. (1233 A.D.).

He grew up in Nawa and at the age of nineteen went to study in Damascus which was considered the center of learning and scholarship.

During his stay at Damascus, Imam Nawawi studied from more than twenty celebrated teachers, regarded as masters and authorities of their fields and disciplines. He studied Hadith, Islamic jurisprudence and principles, syntax and Etymology from great scholars such as Abu Ibrahim Ishaq bin Ahmad AI-Maghribi, Abu Muhammad Abdur-Rahman bin Ibrahim Al-Fazari, Radiyuddin Abu Ishaq Ibrahim bin Abu Hafs Umar bin Mudar Al-Mudari, Abu Ishaq Ibrahim bin Isa Al-Muradi, Abul-Baqa Khalid bin Yusuf An-Nablusi, and Abul-Abbas Ahmad bin Salim Al-Misri.

Imam Nawawi had endless thirst for knowledge. He used to read twelve lessons daily and wrote commentaries on every lesson. Whatever books he read, he would write marginal notes and explanations on each book. His intelligence, hard work, love, devotion and absorption in his studies amazed his teachers and they became fond of him and began to praise and admire him. Allah had also conferred upon him the gift of fast memorisation and depth of thought. Imam Nawawi made full benefit of his God given qualities and potentialities and earned the highest degree of honor.

Imam Nawawi led a life of singular piety, righteousness and simplicity. After over 20 years, he returned to his hometown. Soon after his arrival at Nawa, he fell ill and died in 676 A.H. (1278 AD).


Imam Nawawi had written a large number of books on different subjects. Every work has been recognised as a valuable treasure of knowledge. Among them are:-
•   Riyad al-Salihin
•   Sharh Sahih Muslim
•   Sharh Sunan Abi Dawud
•   Kitab-ur-Raudah
•   Tahdhib-ul-Asma was-Sifat
•   Arba'een
•   Mukhtasar At-Tirmidhi
•   Tabaqat Ash Shafi'iyah
•   Muhimmatul-Ahkam
•   al-Adhkar
•   al-Tibyan fi adab hamalat al-Qur'an
•   al-Irshad wa'l-Taqrib fi 'Ulum al-Hadith
•   al-Minhaj
His Sharh Sahih Muslim is a standard text book for the study of Hadith while his al-Minhaj is used for the study of Fiqh




« Last Edit: February 06, 2011, 04:23:03 PM by mabdullah » Logged
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« Reply #67 on: March 01, 2011, 10:39:39 AM »

Salam,

Ma'sha Allah for having this excellent deed completed what remains for us the readers to keep following till the end. May Allah Almighty rewarded you here and after Ameen.

Ma'asalam.
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« Reply #68 on: March 02, 2011, 03:32:57 AM »

Salam,

Ma'sha Allah for having this excellent deed completed what remains for us the readers to keep following till the end. May Allah Almighty rewarded you here and after Ameen.

Ma'asalam.

سْمِ اللهِ، وَالصَّلَاةُ وَالسَّلَّامُ عَلَى رَسُولِ اللهِ

وعليكم السلام ورحمة الله وبركاته

BarakAllahu feek dear brother.
Good to see you are back on the forum.


Aslam u laikum

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« Reply #69 on: March 02, 2011, 05:24:50 AM »

Salam,

Wa,alaikumussalam wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuhu. You are welcome AKhy.

Ma'asalam.
« Last Edit: March 02, 2011, 07:58:01 AM by mabdullah » Logged
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« Reply #70 on: March 03, 2012, 01:21:25 PM »

بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

Audio link for Nawawi's 40 Hadith in Arabic


http://fortyhadeeth.podbean.com/page/5/



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