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Author Topic: Nawawi's 40 Hadith explanation  (Read 134029 times)
mabdullah
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« on: November 11, 2010, 01:05:31 PM »

 بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

        
(All Ahadith explanations taken from:fortyhadith.iiu.edu.my/)
                                                       
 Hadith one:

إنَّمَا الأَعْمَالُ بِالنِّياَّتِ وَإنمَّاَ لِكُلِّ امْرِئٍ مَا نَوَى، فَمَنْ كَانَتْ هِجْرَتُهُ إِلَى اللهِ وَرَسُولِهِ فَهِجْرَتُهُ إِلَى اللهِ وَرَسُولِهِ، وَمَنْ كَانَتْ هِجْرَتُهُ لِدُنْياَ يُصِيْبُهَا أَوِ امْرَأَةٍ يَنْكِحُهَا فَهِجْرَتُهُ إِلَى مَا هَاجَرَ إِلَيْه

رَوَاهُ البُخَارِيُّ وَمُسْلِمٌ




It is narrated on the authority of Amirul Mu'minin, Abu Hafs 'Umar bin al-Khattab, radiyallahu 'anhu, who said: I heard the Messenger of Allah, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, say:
"Actions are (judged) by motives (niyyah), so each man will have what he intended. Thus, he whose migration (hijrah) was to Allah and His Messenger, his migration is to Allah and His Messenger; but he whose migration was for some worldly thing he might gain, or for a wife he might marry, his migration is to that for which he migrated."
[Al-Bukhari & Muslim]
________________________________________

background

This hadith was said by the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, at the time when a man emigrated from Makkah to Madinah during the Hijrah for the sake of marrying someone and not for the sake of Islam.
It is considered to be one of the greatest hadiths in Islam.
Al-Imam al-Shafie said: This Hadith is one third of the knowledge of Islam; related to about 70 topics of Fiqh.
Al-Imam Ahmad (with reference to al-Imam al-Shafie's statement) said: Islam is based on three fundamentals (all are among the 40 hadiths ):
i.   Hadith 1: which is stated above.
ii.   Hadith 5: "Whosoever introduces into this affair of ours (i.e. Islam) something that does not belong to it, it is to be rejected."
iii.   Hadith 6: "Truly, what is lawful is evident, and what is unlawful is evident, and in between the two are matters which are doubtful which many people do not know……"
These three hadiths are agreed upon by Al-Bukhari and Muslim.
These hadiths can be seen as three criteria to help Muslims evaluate and judge what they do and say "as an ibadah" in their daily life:
i.   Hadith 1 - To evaluate and judge our internal actions (actions of the heart).
ii.   Hadith 5 - To evaluate and judge our external actions (actions of the limbs).
iii.   Hadith 6 - To evaluate and judge our dealings "mu'amalat" (interaction between people).
 
Niyyah (intention) has two meanings:
i.   The intention before an ibadah (e.g. prayer)
ii.   The willingness
The second meaning (ii.) is what is meant in this hadith.
________________________________________
lessons
The Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, starts the hadith with the principle ("Actions are judged by intentions") and then gives three examples. This is the methodology of the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam. The examples help illustrate the principle so that it is easier for people to understand and they can apply the principle to other similar situations.
The three examples consist of one of good intention (migration for the sake of Allah and His Messenger) and two of bad intentions (migration for the sake of worldly gains or for marriage).
 
This hadith emphasises ikhlas (sincerity - to be truthful and honest to Allah alone, performing an act solely for Allah's sake whereby no other witness except Allah is sought). Ikhlas is one of the conditions of accepting good deeds. The other condition is that the actions must be done in accordance with the Shariah as it will be explained in the fifth hadith.
This can be seen in the shahadah :
•   "I bear witness that there is no god but Allah" is the ikhlas - ensuring that we do things for the sake of Allah and Allah alone.
•   "I bear witness that Mohammed is the Messenger of Allah" - the Sunnah is the manifestation of the Quran - the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, is our example, our best model to follow. Following his Sunnah in our ibadah, Akhlaq (ethics), and Muamalat (dealings) ensures that we are acting in accordance with the Shariah.
Thus, the shahadah shows us the conditions for accepting a deed or performing an action: (a) it should be for the sake of Allah because He is the only One we worship, and (b) it should be in accordance with the Shariah.
 
To achieve ikhlas, we have to avoid shirk (associating others with Allah, which causes insincerity). Al-Imam al-Harawi said the root cause for insincerity (or shirk) is self-desire (al-hawa). Therefore no action should be done because of self-desire.
Imam al-Harawi states that there are 7 types of self-desires:-
i.   To make oneself appear good in the hearts of others
ii.   To seek the praises of others
iii.   To avoid being blamed by others
iv.   To seek the glorification of others
v.   To seek the wealth/money of others
vi.   To seek the services or love of others
vii.   To seek the help of others for oneself
 
Ways to obtain ikhlas:
•   Do righteous deeds - the more good deeds we do and hence get closer to Allah, the more sincere we will be.
•   Before we do any deed we should firstly seek knowledge (ilm) - our actions/deeds should be guided by knowledge so that we do them in accordance to the Shariah.
•   Do not give false impressions - do not make others believe that an action we did was good when it was not.
•   Al-Imam Ahmad said: Before you do anything, check your intention (niyyah) - ask yourself before performing an action: "Is it for the sake of Allah?"
 
Ibnu al-Qayyim says: Any action we do is subject to three defects:
i.   Being conscious that others are observing our actions
ii.   Seeking a return (benefit/reward) for the action
iii.   Being satisfied with the action
Examples:
•   If we go to the masjid for the salah and we are early, arriving before the Imam and finding a place in the first saff, we should not be proud of ourselves and think of ourselves being better than others. We should praise Allah for enabling us to go to the masjid and for being able to perform the salah without any difficulties.
•   After every salah, we should tell ourselves that we could have performed it better and try to improve in our next salah.
 
What happens if we were to change our niyyah while performing an action? Ibn Rajab says according to the ulama' if the niyyah at the end of the action matches the beginning (i.e. doing the action for the sake of Allah), then any changes in the middle of the action will be forgiven or does not matter, insha Allah. However, if the niyyah at the end does not match the beginning, i.e. we do the action for other than the sake of Allah, then we must repent (taubah).
 
There are four things that contradict ikhlas:
i.   Ma'siat - committing sins - this will weaken our ikhlas
ii.   Shirk - associating others with Allah
iii.   Riya' - performing an ibadah with the intention of showing off to others
iv.   Nifaq - hypocrisy
Even though we must always make sure that our actions do not deviate from ikhlas, there are actions, which are automatically considered that of good intentions. For example, seeking knowledge in Islam, helping the community, doing da'wah, etc.
 
Some rulings (ahkam) which scholars derived from this hadith:
•   When people 'swear by Allah' by saying "Wallahi" every now and then, their intention is not that they actually swear by Allah. They say it simply out of habit - it readily rolls off their tongue. Hence, it is harmless. However a Muslim should do his/her best to minimize it.
•   When someone is asked to give an oath, what is judged is his intention when he gives the oath.
•   There can be a combination of intentions between performing an ibadah and teaching others - we perform an ibadah for the sake of Allah, but we also do it with the intention of teaching others. e.g. when the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, performed the Hajj, he did it for the sake of Allah as well as for teaching the Sahabah (his companions, may Allah be pleased with them all).
•   A man may go through the process of divorcing his wife, verbally or in court, but it is his intention which counts.
•   What could be seen as ghibah (backbiting - talking bad, but true, things about a person behind his back) could simply be a joke or a dua. If someone talks bad about someone else, it is his intentions, which determines whether it is ghibah or not.
________________________________________

conclusion
Our actions are undermined by our intentions - whether they are good intentions or bad intentions. Therefore we should always check our intentions before we do or say anything. We must make sure that the action is for the sake of Allah so that it is accepted by Allah and that we will be rewarded for it, insha Allah



« Last Edit: January 18, 2011, 05:38:49 AM by mabdullah » Logged
chakula
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« Reply #1 on: November 12, 2010, 05:42:34 AM »

Salamu Alaikum,

Brother I hope this thread is going to be live by keeping posting the hadith with it's commentry as well as lessons contained as you have done it above.
  My Allah Almighty increase you and us in knowledge Ameen.

Ma'asalam.
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mabdullah
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« Reply #2 on: November 12, 2010, 03:07:26 PM »

بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ



HADITH 2

بَيْنَمَا نَحْنُ جُلُوسٌ عِنْدَ رَسُولِ الله ص ذَاتَ يَوْمٍ، إذْ طَلَعَ عَلَيْنَا رَجُلٌ شَدِيدُ بَيَاضِ الثِّيَابِ، شَدِيدُ سَوَادِ الشَّعْرِ، لا يُرَى عَلَيْهِ أَثَرُ السَّفَرِ، وَلا يَعْرِفُهُ مِنَّا أحَدٌ، حَتَّى جَلَسَ إلَى النَّبِيِّ ص، فَأَسْنَدَ رُكْبَتَيْهِ إلَى رُكْبَتَيْهِ، وَوَضَعَ كَفَّيْهِ عَلَى فَخِذَيْهِ، وَقَالَ: يَا مُحَمَّدُ، أخْبِرْنِي عَنْ الإسْلاَمِ. فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللهِ ص: الإِسْلاَمُ أَنْ تَشْهَدَ أَنْ لاَ إِلهَ إِلاَ اللهُ وَأَنَّ مُحَمَّداً رَسُولُ اللهِ، وَتُقِيمَ الصَّلاَةَ، وَتُؤْتِيَ الزَّكَاةَ، وَتَصُومَ رَمَضَانَ، وَتَحُجَّ الْبَيتَ إِن اسْتَطَعْتَ إِلَيْهِ سَبِيلاً. قَالَ: صَدَقْتَ، فَعَجِبْنَا لَهُ يَسْأَلُهُ وَيُصَدِّقُهُ. قَالَ: فَأَخْبِرْنِي عَنِ الإِيْمَانِ، قَالَ: أَنْ تُؤْمِنَ بِاللهِ، وَمَلاَئِكَتِهِ، وَكُتُبِهِ، وَرُسُلِهِ، وَالْيَوْمِ الآخِرِ، وَتُؤْمِنَ بِالْقَدَرِ خَيْرِهِ وَشَرِّهِ. قَالَ: صَدَقْتَ، قَالَ: فَأَخْبِرْنِي عَنِ الإِحْسَانِ. قَالَ: أَنْ تَعْبُدَ اللهَ كَأَنَّكَ تَرَاهُ، فَإِنْ لَمْ تَكُنْ تَرَاهُ فَإِنَّهُ يَرَاكَ. قَالَ: فَأَخْبِرْنِي عَنِ  السَّاعَةِ، قَالَ: مَا الْمَسْؤُولُ عَنْهَا بِأَعْلَمَ مِنَ السَّائِلِ. قَالَ: فَأَخْبِرْنِي عَنْ أَمَارَاتِهَا، قَالَ:  أَنْ تَلِدَ الأَمَةُ رَبَّتَهَا، وَأَنْ تَرَى الْحُفَاةَ الْعُرَاةَ الْعَالَةَ رِعَاءَ الشَّاءِ يَتَطَاوَلُونَ فِي الْبُنْيَانِ. ثُمَّ انْطَلَقَ فَلَبِثْتُ مَلِيًّا ثُمَّ قَالَ: يَا عُمَرُ أَتَدْرِي مَنِ السَّائِلُ؟ قُلْتُ: اللهُ وَرَسُولُهُ أَعْلَمُ، قَالَ: فَإِنَّهُ جِبْرِيْلُ أَتَاكُمْ يُعَلِّمُكُمْ دِيْنَكُمْ

رَوَاهُ مُسْلِمٌ



 
Also on the authority of 'Umar, radiyallahu 'anhu, who said:
"While we were one day sitting with the Messenger of Allah, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, there appeared before us a man dressed in extremely white clothes and with very black hair. No traces of journeying were visible on him, and none of us knew him.
He sat down close by the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, rested his knee against his thighs, and said, O Muhammad! Inform me about Islam." Said the Messenger of Allah, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, "Islam is that you should testify that there is no deity save Allah and that Muhammad is His Messenger, that you should perform salah (ritual prayer), pay the zakah, fast during Ramadan, and perform Hajj (pilgrimage) to the House (the Ka'bah at Makkah), if you can find a way to it (or find the means for making the journey to it)." Said he (the man), "You have spoken truly."
We were astonished at his thus questioning him and telling him that he was right, but he went on to say, "Inform me about iman (faith)." He (the Messenger of Allah) answered, "It is that you believe in Allah and His angels and His Books and His Messengers and in the Last Day, and in fate (qadar), both in its good and in its evil aspects." He said, "You have spoken truly."
Then he (the man) said, "Inform me about Ihsan." He (the Messenger of Allah) answered, " It is that you should serve Allah as though you could see Him, for though you cannot see Him yet He sees you." He said, "Inform me about the Hour." He (the Messenger of Allah) said, "About that the one questioned knows no more than the questioner." So he said, "Well, inform me about the signs thereof (i.e. of its coming)." Said he, "They are that the slave-girl will give birth to her mistress, that you will see the barefooted ones, the naked, the destitute, the herdsmen of the sheep (competing with each other) in raising lofty buildings." Thereupon the man went off.
I waited a while, and then he (the Messenger of Allah) said, "O 'Umar, do you know who that questioner was?" I replied, "Allah and His Messenger know better." He said, "That was Jibril. He came to teach you your religion.""
[Muslim]
________________________________________
background
Al-Imam Muslim says: Towards the end of his life, Abdullah bin 'Umar (the son of 'Umar bin al-Khattab) was told by two people that a new Islamic sect had emerged from Iraq. They were called Al-Qadariah and they denied al-qadar (fate). Thus Abdullah bin 'Umar narrated this hadith which mentions qadar as one of the pillars of Iman to refute the misconception of this sect.
________________________________________
lessons
This hadith teaches the adab (ethics) of seeking knowledge:
•   We should be clean and wear clean clothes.
•   We should sit properly and closer to the speaker.
•   Asking questions for better understanding.
•   Seek knowledge from the right source/authority.
The method of seeking knowledge is through asking questions:
•   The type of questions we ask should be meaningful - questions that will lead to valuable knowledge and good action.
•   Asking good questions will result in better learning as well as teaching. Those who are present when the questions are asked will also learn from the answers - thus, the questioner is teaching the others.
•   When Ibn Abbas, one of the greatest Scholars among the Sahabahs, was asked how he obtained all his knowledge, he replied: "with an inquisitive tongue (i.e. he always asked questions) and a contemplating heart".
•   In many hadiths the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, himself will start by asking questions before he imparts with knowledge. Asking questions will prepare the mind/heart so that it will be ready for the answers/knowledge - ready to absorb and learn. In this hadith he calls Jibril "the questioner" which implies full appreciation and encouragement of asking questions specially the ones that will lead to gaining more knowledge.
•   In the Quran itself there are more than 1,200 questions - to serve different purposes - to provoke the mind of the reader and force it to indulge in thinking about what he/she reads.
 
Scholars say that qadar can be seen at two levels:
i.   We believe that Allah knew, with His ultimate knowledge, what all His creations will do, even before the creations took place. Allah recorded all this knowledge in Al-Lauhulmahfudz - the preserved tablet.
ii.   We believe that it is the will of Allah that these things will take place, whether they are good or bad.
Allah created our willingness and our ability of doing things - we can only do something if we are willing and able to do it. However, we are responsible for the choices we make.
 
Misconceptions about Qadar
Many Muslims believe that what they are going to do is caused by what has already been written in Al-Lauhulmahfudz - they confuse 'causation' with 'association'. In truth what we have is association, not causation. What we do is not caused by what is written by Allah. Allah with His ultimate knowledge knew what we are going to do. He could easily have put the good-doers into Jannah and the evil-doers into the Hellfire. But Allah is Adil (Just) so He created us in this life as to test us which way to go. What we are going to do will match what has already been written but it's not a matter of causation - what we do is out of our own willingness and ability and we do have full responsibility on whatever choice we make.
Looking at guidance and misguidance, guidance (hidayah) is a gift (rahmah) from Allah. It is Allah who created us and gave us the mind so we can distinguish between right and wrong to a certain capacity. It is Allah who equipped us with fitrah to like the truth and good and to dislike the wrong and evil It is Allah who gave us the ability and power to do things and it is Allah who sent the Messenger with the Message to guide us in things, which are beyond the reach of our conception. So when it comes to guidance it is a bounty from Allah.
But when it comes to misguidance, it has to do with us. When we do bad deeds, it is from our own willingness and ability.
Those who turn away from guidance do so because they want to turn away, i.e. they choose not to be guided. They have been misguided because they are arrogant - they refuse to listen.
And so when they swerved from the right way, Allah let their hearts swerve from the truth.
[Surah As-Saff (61): ayat 5]
Nevertheless there are people who have not received the Message of Islam/guidance at all or the Message has not reached them in the clearest form, i.e. it is incomplete or distorted. These people are called Ahlul Fatrah and will be excused and not be punished, even though there are misguided.
 
There are certain situations where we can do something about our qadar. For example:
•   Illness/sickness is qadar - but we have been commanded by the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, to look for a cure should we become ill. Finding a cure is also qadar. Thus, a qadar could be dealt with through another qadar.
•   If something unfortunate happens to us, e.g. if we lost our job, we don't just say that it's qadar and do nothing about it. We look for another job, the consequence of which is another qadar.
'Umar bin al-Khattab was traveling with a group of Sahabahs during his Khilafah (leadership). They were coming to a town when they heard that it had a contagious/infectious disease, i.e. cholera. 'Umar asked his group whether they should proceed or go back (to Madinah). The majority of the Sahabahs said they should go back but some said they should proceed. Then one Sahabi said he knew a hadith where the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, said, "If you hear that this disease exists in a country, don't travel to that country." So 'Umar decided that they should go back. Another Sahabi (it seems from the second group) asked him whether he was running away from a qadar. 'Umar replied that they were moving away from one qadar to another qadar.
Thus, whenever there is a problem, a challenge or any hardship which we can remove, overcome, solve or minimize, it is a must that we do so. Some scholars like al-Imam al-Jilani use the term: "overcoming qadar" in this regard.
In one hadith, the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, said, "Be keen for whatever is beneficial for you. Seek the help of Allah. And don't be reckless." This hadith implies we must make the effort. The right concept of qadar is: we are responsible for whatever we do.
For example: If we were to drive recklessly and caused an accident where someone died or was injured, we cannot simply say that it is qadar, abusing the concept to justify our mistakes. It is qadar that the incident took place because it is by the permission of Allah. But we are responsible for the death because it is through our willingness and ability that it happened. That's why in the courts we will be found guilty. If qadar can be used as an excuse, then many crimes will go unpunished - a thief can simply claim that his stealing was qadar!
 
Those who abuse the concept of qadar are those who fail to be responsible. They abuse it to justify their failure. The correct way of using qadar as an excuse is: if someone exerts himself to do his best to fulfil an obligation but due to an unavoidable circumstance, which was out of his control, he could not achieve that obligation - then he might be excused. For example, a student has studied hard for an exam but on the day of the exam he falls sick and does poorly or cannot even attend the exam, then he can say that it is qadar and that it is the will of Allah.
When it comes to religious obligations, the matter is the same. We cannot blame qadar for committing sins or failing to do a wajib as some Muslims might do. We have to know that we are responsible. We might get into a weak status of Iman in doing a sin or delaying a wajib. Islam is such a practical religion that it gives us room for repentance and getting back to the right path.
 
In the above hadith the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, defines Al-Islam, i.e. the five pillars, as the outward actions of the limbs, Al-Iman as being associated with belief - the inner actions of the heart, and Al-Ihsan as the highest level to attain. But the first two definitions can be interchanged with each other - sometimes Islam can be used to describe internal actions and Iman can mean external actions. There are a few hadiths which The Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, mentions that there are more than seventy actions which are considered as Iman.
If the term Islam is used on its own, it means the whole thing - Al-Islam, Al-Iman and Al-Ihsan. Similarly, when Iman is used on its own it means Al-Iman, Al-Islam and Al-Ihsan. The Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, mentions at the end of this hadith that the deen consists of these three things.
 
If the Iman is weak it will affect Al-Islam (good deeds/actions). According to al-Imam Abu Hanifa: Even though Al-Iman and Al-Islam are different, Al-Iman necessitates the actions (Al-Islam).
Some Scholars say the Muslims are considered strangers among the Disbelievers; and the Mua'minin are considered strangers among the Muslims; and the Muhsinin are considered strangers among the Mua'minin.
 
Al-Ihsan (the highest level of Iman where we worship Allah as if we see Him or if we don't see Him we know He sees us) is about fearing Allah and glorifying Him. This will lead us to strive for our best in performing our ibadah - we will be more sincere in our ibadah. Thus Al-Ihsan is also about the best actions of the heart. The actions that will lead to Al-Ihsan: to love Allah the most, to fear Allah the most, to seek the help of Allah, to have hope in Allah that He will give us mercy and guide us, to trust Allah wholly.
 
When Jibril, aliyyhi as-Salam, asks the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, about the Hour (the Day of Judgement), the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, replies that neither he nor Jibril knows the answer. This is an example set by the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, where even someone with vast knowledge like himself does not know everything and admits so.
Al-Imam Malik was asked forty questions by someone and to most of them he answered "I don't know - Allah knows better". The man was surprised that the great Imam Malik didn't know the answers. Seeing the man surprised, Imam Malik told him that when he goes back to his town, to tell the people that he met and asked al-Imam Malik questions and Imam Malik said he didn't know the answers. Al-Imam Malik didn't want to be accountable for giving wrong answers. Thus, if we are to become an educator or a scholar, we should have the courage to admit what we do not know. We should not give an answer which may contain incorrect information.
 
The signs of Akhirah mentioned in this hadith are minor signs, as opposed to major ones. We believe in these signs but we should not worry about them too much - we should not worry about when these signs will occur. We should actually be careful as some of these signs are bad deeds and we must steer away from these bad deeds.
________________________________________
conclusion
This hadith contains everything about Islam: the five pillars of Islam, the beliefs that make up Iman (including the belief of fate or qadar), the attainment of the highest level of Iman which is Ihsan, the adab of seeking knowledge and of teaching

« Last Edit: January 18, 2011, 05:40:02 AM by mabdullah » Logged
mabdullah
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« Reply #3 on: November 14, 2010, 03:29:59 PM »

 بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

HADITH 3

بُنِيَ الإِسْلاَمُ عَلَى خَمْسٍ: شَهَادَةِ أَنْ لاَ إلهَ إِلاَّ اللهُ وَأَنَّ مُحَمَّداً رَسُولُ اللهِ، وَإقَامِ الصَّلاَةِ، وَإيْتَاءِ الزَّكَاةِ، وَحَجِّ الْبَيْتِ، وَصَوْمِ رَمَضَانَ

رَوَاهُ البُخَارِيُّ وَمُسْلِمٌ

 
On the authority of Abu 'Abd al-Rahman 'Abdullah bin 'Umar bin al-Khattab, radiyallahu 'anhuma, who said: I heard the Messenger of Allah, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, say:
"Islam has been built upon five things - on testifying that there is no god save Allah, and that Muhammad is His Messenger; on performing salah; on giving the zakah; on Hajj to the House; and on fasting during Ramadhan."
[Al-Bukhari & Muslim]
________________________________________
background
This hadith is part of the previous Hadith (2). Most Scholars say that the reason why al-Imam al-Nawawi included this hadith in his collection, even though it seems that it repeats some portions of Hadith 2, is because of the importance of the 5 pillars of Islam.
This Hadith stresses the fundamental aspects of the outward submission to Allah. This submission is based on some pillars, similar to a structure. If a person fulfills these aspects, he has laid a solid foundation for his deen as a 'home'.
The other acts of Islam, which are not mentioned in this hadith, can be taken as fine touches to complete this structure.
If a person fails to fulfill these obligations (building the pillars), then the entire structure of his deen/iman may be threatened. This depends on how much is being violated - e.g. violation of the shahadah is the most dangerous.
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lessons
The use of metaphors and similes
This hadith uses a metaphor (i.e. the image of the structure of a building) to affirm certain important meanings. This use of metaphors and similes can be found in many Surahs in the Quran and in many other hadiths. For example:
•   In Surah At-Taubah (9): ayat 109, a similar metaphor is used - the structure of the Mua'min's deen/iman is based on a sound foundation, whereas the structure of the deen of the Munafiq is based on weak ground which may lead to the collapse of the structure, resulting in the Munafik entering the Hellfire.
•   Surah An-Nur (24): ayat 35, uses the metaphor of light as the light of guidance in the heart of the Mua'min.
•   A metaphor used to condemn those who fail to fulfill the amanah (i.e. religious obligations) can be found in Surah Al-Jumu'ah (62): ayat 5. The Bani Israel, having failed to obey Allah's commandments in the Taurah, are described as a donkey which is burdened with heavy books on its back but doesn't understand anything from them. Scholars have said that this metaphor also applies to other nations, which fail to fulfill their amanah.
•   In one hadith the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, divided the status of his ummah into three categories: those who benefit from the Message, those who benefit partially and those who fail to benefit at all. He, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, used the metaphor of rain (as the Message) falling down on different types of land, producing different results.
Using metaphors to convey the Message is a very important 'tool' and it is the methodology used in the Quran and by the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam. There are many modes of expression used in the Quran and Hadith and they are used for different purposes. E.g. Dealing with the misconceptions and false assumptions of the disbelievers, the Quran and Hadith use rational thinking. When describing Jannah and the Hellfire, the style used by the Quran and Hadith is the visual mode of expression - they are described in such detail that it is like we can actually visualize Jannah or the Hellfire in front of us.
One of the Sahabahs said that he had already seen Jannah and the Hellfire. The other Sahabahs were puzzled and asked him how this could be so as nobody is able to see them until the Hereafter. He replied, "I saw them through the eyes of the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam. If I were to be given the chance to see Jannah and the Hellfire with my own eyes, I would not trust my sight. I trust the eyes of the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, more than I trust my own eyes." Here we can conclude that if we read and understand the Quran and the Hadiths we too can visualize the paradise and the Hellfire.
These modes of expression (thinking styles) used by the Quran and Hadith should be well understood and used by Muslims today to convey the Message of Islam when doing da'wah as it is the most effective way. Different styles should be used to reach/convince different people - some people are more emotional, some are more rational, etc.
 
First Pillar : The Shahadah
The first part of the Shahadah is testifying that there is none worthy of worship except Allah.
There are seven conditions of the Shahadah:
•   Knowledge - to understand what it means
•   Certainty - to have no doubt about anything confirmed in the Quran or Sunnah
•   Acceptance - by the tongue and the heart of whatever the Shahadah implies
•   Submission/compliance - the actual physical enactment by deeds
•   Truthfulness - to say the Shahadah sincerely, with honesty, to actually mean it
•   Sincerity - to do it solely for the sake of Allah
•   Love - to love the Shahadah and to love its implications and requirements and what it stands for
The Shahadah is not simply saying it with our tongue. We need to adhere to these conditions. If we say the Shahadah sincerely and with honesty, we will not do anything which contradicts with or violates the Shahadah.
The second part of the Shahadah carries the following conditions:
•   To believe in the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, and in whatever he told us and conveyed to us
•   To obey him in whatever he commanded us to do
•   To stay away from or avoid whatever he commanded us not to do
•   To follow or emulate him in our ibadah, akhlaq and way of life
•   To love him more than we love ourselves, our family and anything else in this world
•   To understand, practice and promote his Sunnah in the best way possible, without creating any chaos, enmity or harm
 
Second Pillar : Establishing the Prayers (Salah)
Some interpretations of this hadith translate "iqamatus salah" as 'performing' the salah. "Iqamatus salah" is a broader concept than what the term 'performing' means. The Scholars say "iqamatus salah" implies:
•   Doing the wudu in the proper way
•   To do the salah in its time
•   To do it in congregation (jama'ah) - where the reward is 27 times than praying alone
•   To fulfill the six conditions of salah
•   To observe the proper manners (adab) of doing it such as submission and humility
•   To follow preferable actions (sunnan) in our salah
It is important that we follow these conditions and not violate them if we want to truly fulfill the second pillar of Islam i.e. "iqamatus salah". We should remember that Allah initially commanded us to pray fifty times a day and it was eventually reduced to five times (with the reward of fifty) - the prayer times are very reasonably spread out throughout the day - it can even help us to manage our time - it can help us to manage our affairs, allowing the Muslim community to meet during congregation and care for and help each other which will lead in turn to solidarity. Thus, the prayers should not be seen as a burden as some Muslims might regard them today.
 
Third Pillar : Zakat
The giving of Zakat has been pointed out by the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, for certain things and in certain ways or percentages and under certain conditions. The Scholars say that knowing the details of Zakat only becomes an obligation when a person owns the type of property or thing which requires him to give Zakat for. E.g. Farmers or traders or property owners need to know the conditions and percentages of Zakat that they are obligated to give.
 
Fourth Pillar : Hajj
Pilgrimage (Hajj) to the House (Kaabah) is an obligation that we need to do only once in our lifetime - only if we meet certain conditions, e.g. if we have the financial means, a way of travelling peacefully, etc. If we meet these conditions then we should perform the Hajj as soon as possible and not to delay it.
Some Scholars say that if we have the means to perform the Hajj several times, then it is better to use this money to help others to fulfill their obligations - we will be rewarded for their pilgrimage or to use the money for the betterment of the community.
For each of these Pillars there are conditions, sunnan, ethics (adab), etc., which should be observed when we perform these ibadahs. Why do we always hear that every year hundreds of Muslims lose their lives or get injured during Hajj? Most of these incidents are due to the negligence of the adab or violation of the sunnan. For example, the throwing of stones at the Jamrat:
•   Even though we are supposed to use small stones, people tend to use big ones and throw recklessly from a far distance, causing injuries to others.
•   People do not follow the specified directions when they move, causing many to get crushed by the 'human waves' moving in different directions.
•   People insist on going to throw at the peak times, i.e. the busiest part of the day. The elderly, women and handicapped should be reminded to go when it is less crowded.
Thus, it is important that we observe the adab.
 
Fifth Pillar : Fasting
Ramadhan is a training program for all Muslims to go through, performing good deeds to become better Muslims. However, we should continue with these good deeds outside of Ramadhan - praying in the mosque, Tahajjud, Qiamu alil, reciting the Qur'an, helping and caring for others etc.
The Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, when asked what the best way is to finish reading the whole Qur'an, said to do it in one month, i.e. one Juzuk per day. This is something we should practice all the time and not have to wait for Ramadhan to do it. If we cannot achieve this, at least try to read one or two pages a day (a quarter of a hizb).
Similarly we should try to do the night prayers (tahajjud), be it only two raka'at and not everyday, outside of Ramadhan.
We should not make personal commitments in performing these preferable actions where the Shariah has not made this itself. This might lead us to giving up on our commitment and hence, the good deed. The best way is to do it on ease and convenience aiming at the continuity of these good deeds.
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conclusion
All the Pillars of Islam have rulings, conditions and mannerisms (ahkam wa adab) applied to them. It is important that we know these ahkam and adab and regularly remind ourselves, especially before Ramadan or before performing the Hajj, so that we perform the Pillars properly and according to the Shariah.

« Last Edit: January 21, 2011, 05:46:28 AM by mabdullah » Logged
chakula
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« Reply #4 on: November 15, 2010, 02:46:50 AM »

Salamu Alaikum,

Jazakallah Khair.

Ma'asalam.
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mabdullah
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« Reply #5 on: November 15, 2010, 02:36:36 PM »

Salamu Alaikum,

Jazakallah Khair.

Ma'asalam.

بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

وعليكم السللام ورحمة الله وبركاته

BarakAllahu feek Akhy-e-karim.

Alhamdulillah it is real pleasure to see young brothers learning Allah's Deen with great interst.

Next thing will be to teach others using same material, starting with family and friends. May be a small "Halaqa" with family members to discuss one Hadith or explanation of an Ayat at a time.

May Allah (Azza wa Jall) increase our Iman and be pleased with us and allow us all to gather togather in His Jannah . Ameen.

Aslam ulaikum.


.

« Last Edit: November 15, 2010, 03:43:27 PM by mabdullah » Logged
mabdullah
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« Reply #6 on: November 16, 2010, 01:58:12 PM »

 بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيم

HADITH 4
إِنَّ أَحَدَكُمْ يُجْمَعُ خَلْقُهُ فِي بَطْنِ أُمِّهِ أَرْبَعِيْنَ يَوْماً نُطْفَةً، ثُمَّ يَكُونُ عَلَقَةً مِثْلَ ذَلِكَ، ثُمَّ يَكُونُ مُضْغَةً مِثْلَ ذَلِكَ، ثُمَّ يُرْسَلُ إِلَيْهِ الْمَلَكُ فَيَنْفُخُ فِيْهِ الرُّوحَ وَيُؤْمَرُ بِأَرْبَعِ كَلِمَاتٍ: بِكَتْبِ رِزْقِهِ، وَأَجَلِهِ، وَعَمَلِهِ، وَشَقِيٌّ أَوْسَعِيْدٌ. فَوَاللهِ الَّذِي لاَ إِلهَ غَيْرَهُ إِنَّ أَحَدَكُمْ لَيَعْمَلُ بِعَمَلِ أَهْلِ الْجَنَّةِ، حَتَّى مَا يَكُونَ بَيْنَهُ وَبَيْنَهَا إِلاَّ ذِرَاعٌ، فَيَسْبِقُ عَلَيْهِ الْكِتَابُ فَيَعْمَلُ بِعَمَلِ أَهْلِ النَّارِ فَيَدْخُلُهَا، وَإِنَّ أَحَدَكُمْ لَيَعْمَلُ بِعَمَلِ أَهْلِ النَّارِ، حَتَّى مَا يَكُونَ بَيْنَهُ وَبَيْنَهَا إِلاَّ ذِرَاعٌ، فَيَسْبِقُ عَلَيْهِ الْكِتَابُ فَيَعْمَلُ بِعَمَلِ أَهْلِ الْجَنَّةِ فَيَدْخُلُهَا
رَوَاهُ البُخَارِيُّ وَمُسْلِمٌ
Abu 'Abd al-Rahman 'Abdullah bin Mas'ud, radiyallahu 'anhu, reported: The Messenger of Allah, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, the most truthful, the most trusted, told us:
"Verily the creation of any one of you takes place when he is assembled in his mother's womb; for forty days he is as a drop of fluid, then it becomes a clot for a similar period. Thereafter, it is a lump looking like it has been chewed for a similar period. Then an angel is sent to him, who breathes the ruh (spirit) into him. This Angel is commanded to write Four decrees: that he writes down his provision (rizq), his life span, his deeds, and whether he will be among the wretched or the blessed.
I swear by Allah - there is no God but He - one of you may perform the deeds of the people of Paradise till there is naught but an arm's length between him and it, when that which has been written will outstrip him so that he performs the deeds of the people of the Hell Fire; one of you may perform the deeds of the people of the Hell Fire, till there is naught but an arm's length between him and it, when that which has been written will overtake him so that he performs the deeds of the people of Paradise and enters therein."
[Al-Bukhari & Muslim]
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background
This hadith was not only recorded by Al-Bukhari and Muslim but by other Scholars as well. Apart from 'Abdullah bin Mas'ud, this hadith was also narrated by many other companions (Sahabahs).
This narration by 'Abdullah bin Mas'ud was recorded with different versions where some words/terms conflicted with each other, resulting in different versions having different meanings regarding Creation. The conflicts are as follows:
1.   The addition of the word "nutfah" (the drop of a fluid)
This word is not mentioned in Bukhari neither Muslim's narration. However it was added to other narrations including the one chosen by al-Imam al-Nawawi to provide a better interpretation or explanation but instead it gave two conflicting views of the creation of mankind in terms of stages of the fetus:
First View:
The three stages of the fetus consist of forty days each, equaling to a total of 120 days for the stages to complete. It is only after this 120 days that the ruh (spirit) is breathed into the fetus, as well as the recording of the fetus' provision life span, deeds and destiny. This view, the inclusion of the word "nuftah", is the view held by the majority of the Scholars.
One problem with this view is that the stages of the fetus as interpreted in this hadith contradict the facts proven by science today.
Another problem concerns the Fatwa on abortion. Scholars say that abortion is allowed (provided there is a very good reason - e.g. the woman's life is in danger) only before the ruh is breathed into the fetus, i.e. before 120 days - as opposed to 40 days if the second view is to be taken (see below).
Second View:
The word "nutfah" does not belong to the text of the hadith. This changes the meaning of the hadith which interprets the three stages of the fetus as taking place in the first forty days. This view correlates with scientific facts. And this means that the ruh is breathed into the fetus after forty days, and not 120 days. Consequently the Fatwa on abortion states that abortion is allowed only before forty days.
2.   The authenticity of the last section of the Hadith
Some Scholars say that the last section of the hadith (i.e. "By Allah…) is not part of the text of the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, but the words of 'Abdullah bin Mas'ud. But since the issue in this hadith is related to matters which we cannot perceive with our limited human perception, this last section is accepted and included here because 'Abdullah bin Mas'ud may have derived the meaning from another hadith of the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, to explain this hadith better.
There are other hadiths collected by Al-Bukhari and Muslim, which touch on the same issue. But there are some differences between the texts of those hadiths and this one. Those hadiths narrate the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, as saying: One of you will perform the acts of the people of the Paradise (Ahlul Jannah) as it appears in the eyes of the people.
This is like the Munafiqin or hypocrites - they do the acts of the Mua'minin. They appear, in our eyes, to be doing the acts of the Ahlul Jannah but Allah knows best. Their end will be a disaster - by being Munafiqin they are actually denying the message of God in their deep hearts as Allah mentioned in the Qur'an and their end will be in the Hellfire since they do not submit to Allah in their hearts. This explanation of the other hadiths is important in the understanding of this hadith.
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lessons
The Scholars say when we do a research on a concept or an issue mentioned in hadiths, we shouldn't depend on only one hadith - we need to search for other similar hadiths, which deal with the same issue/matter. We must remember that some narrators will narrate a hadith by its meaning, and not exactly as it was said by the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam. This is because being human, some of them may forget some of the exact words/terms used by the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam - but they still understand the actual meaning of what was said.
Then we need to compare the different texts of hadiths on the same issue with each other in order to have a more complete interpretation and better understanding of the issue/matter at hand.
 
Some people, on hearing this hadith as it is and without further explanation, might feel despair, fearing that they fall into the bad group of people mentioned. This will lead to determination (jabriah) - they may think that no matter what they do, if their end has already been written, then why should they bother to do good deeds. This is the wrong attitude to have as it is based on a wrong perception. Allah is Just. We should trust Allah. If we are good to Allah and trust Him, He will be good to us. We should be optimistic and not pessimistic. We follow Allah's commands and make the effort to be good Muslims and we should not despair.
During one of the battles, a companion (Sahabi) said to the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, that he was following him, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, to fight in the hope that an arrow will be shot through his (the Sahabi's) neck, coming in from the front and going out the back. The Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, said, "If you are honest with Allah, Allah will be honest with you." The Sahabi died exactly as he hoped to.
The Prophet's, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, words here are generic and can be used for all situations. If we are honest with Allah, Allah will not leave us - He will help us - He will guide us, etc. The closer we are to Allah, the more He will help us and guide us. Thus, the last section of this hadith is an exception and applies only to few people such as the Munafiqin.
 
But this, on the other hand, does not mean that we live in hope alone. The Scholars say that we must combine hope with fear - when we worship Allah, we should have hope as well as fear of Him. Fearing Allah is a positive thing. The more we fear Allah, the closer we get to Him. The more we fear Allah, the more calm and at peace we will be. This is unlike the natural 'fear' where if we fear something, e.g. a fire or a dangerous animal, we will try to get away from it.
Scholars say that we should have an equal amount of hope to the amount of fear. This is so we will have a better status of Iman (faith) - there is no despair and at the same time there is no excessive hope (over-confidence) which could lead to laziness and the non-fulfillment of our obligations. This is why we need to combine hope and fear, as well as love Allah the most and have trust in Him.
 
This above hadith is about Allah's Creation and Qadar. The statement: "that which has been written will overtake him" should be understood in the positive sense and not negatively. Allah with His ultimate knowledge knows what will happen as it has been explained in the previous hadith.
Al-Qadar can be categorized as:
1.   Al-Qadar al-Kulli - the general qadar which has been recorded by Allah in Al-Lauhulmahfudz or the Preserved Tablet.
2.   Al-Qadar al-Sanawi - the annual qadar which takes place once a year (Lailatul qadar) - where it matchs what has been written in Al-Lauhulmahfudz.
What has been written in Al-Lauhulmahfudz is only known to Allah. It is not revealed to us - we don't know about our destiny, what our rizq is, where we'll end up, etc. To us it is ghaib and unknown. The translation of this hadith using the word "overtake" may not give the true meaning if it were to be understood that whatever has been recorded by the angels will be "imposed" on a person's life. We are simply being told about Ilmu Allah or the ultimate knowledge of Allah. What has been written does not cause us to do what we do. It is not a cause and affect situation, as believed by many Muslims. Many Muslims believe that as it has already been written, therefore this will cause us to do whatever has been written. The truth is even though it has been written and even though we will do it, we will not do it because it has been written. It is actually an association, or a matching. What we are going to do matches the knowledge of Allah, because Allah's knowledge is ultimate. In other words, what we are going to do matches what has been written. This shows the glory of Allah, the ultimate knowledge of Allah. So we should not have the understanding that things are imposed on us. Otherwise this will nullify the whole concept of iman (faith) and the whole concept of Creation and all other related concepts.
 
We are responsible for what we choose and for what we do. Referring to the last section of this hadith where a person's final destiny changes at the last minute and he ends up not as expected, there are examples in the Sirahs where some people embrace Islam in the last minute - e.g. they embrace Islam and go into battle and die, some of them not having done a single good deed. There are also many examples today where non-practicing Muslims or those doing bad deeds, having reached the last stages of their lives (at the age of 50 or 60), will repent and turn into a good Muslim. The same applies for thousands of new converts every year.These people, according to the will of Allah, will be forgiven and enter Paradise.
For the other scenario where a person performs good deeds most of his/her life and at the end of his/her life perform bad deeds deserving to enter the Hellfire (as mentioned in the hadith), this situation affects only a limited number of people compared to the first one. And it is because of the person himself, such as in the case of hypocrites.
 
To have the correct understanding of the concept of qadar, we need to know more about the creation of the human being. What is mentioned in this Hadith is actually a miracle. It describes the stages of the fetus and the creation of man 1,400 years before science and technology confirm it as fact. (This description of the stages of the fetus can also be found in the Quran but without the mention of the periods of times.) In other words, scientists were only able to observe this phenomenon in the last few decades whereas it was already mentioned in the Qur'an and Hadith hundreds of years ago.
A conference regarding the Creation was held in Europe several years ago and some Muslim Scholars were invited to attend. When these Scholars gave the Islamic perspective regarding the stages of the fetus, showing that this was documented in the Quran and the Hadith, some of the people who attended the conference embraced Islam - they were convinced that it is a Divine revelation.
 
We also need to understand the components of the human being in order to help us understand qadar in the positive way. The human being consists of the following components: -
•   The intellect (Al-Aql) - this allows us, to a certain extent, to distinguish between good and evil. The intellect is part of us, part of the creation of Allah. Based on this, a person is regarded as mukallaf, responsible to understand and accept the massage of Allah if he is sane. If someone is mentally disturbed or insane, then he is not mukallaf.
•   The natural disposition or innate (Al-Fitrah) - we are created with this innate which enables us to love what is good and what is right and to hate what is evil and what is wrong. It consists of love and hate. Even though we are created with this fitrah, it is subject to change due to the environment, to our parents, upbringing, etc. Therefore there are people who might love what is bad due to a spoiled or a corrupted fitrah. The Scholars say the original fitrah is still there within these people - if we try to 'awaken' the fitrah, these people will come back to loving good and hating bad.
•   The commitment that we make, at the time of our pre-creation, to worship only Allah. This is related to the fitrah - it causes us to have this natural disposition or innate towards loving what is good and hating what is bad.
•   The willingness (Al-Iradah) and Power (Qudrah): Allah provided us with willingness and power/ability. An action cannot take place without this willingness and power - we do something only if we are willing and we have the power to do it. But this willingness and power are neutral and can be manipulated and used in either good or bad ways.
•   We have also been created with desires (shahawat) and the existence of these desires within us can manipulate our willingness or power towards good or bad.
Desires are part of what is known as the internal challenges - things which influence our willingness and ability. The internal challenges consist of:
o   Shahawat/Hawa (self desires)
o   Nafs, of which there are three different aspects:
i.   The nafs which encourages us to do bad deeds
ii.   The nafs which blames us for our bad deeds or thoughts of bad deeds (if we have iman and knowledge) - e.g. our nafs says "Aren't you ashamed of yourself for thinking about drinking alcohol?"
iii.   The peaceful nafs (al-Mutma'inah)

We can be dealing with these three different aspects of the nafs in a short period of time, e.g. within less than an hour, where (i) we start in thinking about doing a bad deed, caused by al-nafsu ammarah bi sua' which is the first aspect of nafs, but due to our faith (ii) the blaming self prevents us from performing that bad deed, leading us to (iii) the aspect of the peaceful self.
There are also external challenges (which attract the internal challenges):
o   The existing muharamat (prohibitions) - e.g. the first aspect of nafs will activate the hawa and the hawa will push us to think about and do the bad deeds.
o   The insinuation/whispering (waswasa) of Satan. All that Satan can do is to insinuate. He will try to convince us to do bad deeds by promoting evil and making it appear nice and acceptable to us, or convince us to delay doing good deeds. E.g. if we are good Muslims Satan will try to make us delay performing the prayer or giving the sadaqah by making it appear as a bad thing to do because giving sadaqah will result in a financial burden for us. As we can see, both cases are done through coloring our perception.
 
We can see that some of the components of the human being help us while some are challenges. For example, the Fitrah and Aql are strong components which direct us to do good. However there is a limit to our intellect and for this Allah sent us the Messengers with the revelations to guide us. Allah's Guidance helps us by telling us what is good and what is bad, in what forms the insinuation of Satan can come in, etc. When we recite the Qur'an with contemplation, we will attain the insight (basirah) which will activate the blaming-self and the nafs ul mutma' inah.
 
The Qur'an tells us that we have been created to be tested: (Allah) Who has created death and life that He may test you which of you is best in deed. [Surah Al-Mulk (67): ayat 2]
Allah tells us what we are being tested on and the scenarios mentioned above describe the nature of the test. This is the mercy of Allah - He equips us with the power, the will, the fitrah, the aql, the Message/guidance, etc. But He warns us that our will is going to be tested by internal and external challenges. The power and willingness is neutral but it can be influenced/directed to go either way, good or bad. If we have the insight (basirah), if we recite the Quran, if we are close to Allah, if we have the wisdom (hikmah), then what will be activated is the sound mind and the shahawat (selfdesires) will be controlled and we will not be misled by them. Satan will not come close to us because he knows that if he does so he will not be able to influence us. If we look at it this way, our life is a challenge - it's a real test that we have to go through.
 
Even with all these components Allah has equipped us with, we still need Tawfiqul Allah (guidance from Allah). Without tawfiq we might be misled by our desires or by the insinuation of Satan. Thus we need to be closer to Allah. We need to do du'a to Allah (calling on Him) all the time and to devote our hearts to Him so that we are constantly seeking His help, His refuge, His Hidayah (guidance). That's why at least 17 times a day we say "Guide us to the Straight Way" - we need Allah's guidance again and again. The guidance is not only to the path but it is also within the path. These are the two types of guidance (hidayah) - (i) to the path is becoming a Muslim and (ii) within the path is increasing our S. The Scholars say we need guidance within the path every second of the day - we need Allah's guidance.
________________________________________
conclusion
The hadiths are the sources of our iman (faith), knowledge, and guidance as we are taught by the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam. Studying and understanding the Hadiths will activate our insight.
« Last Edit: January 21, 2011, 05:54:44 AM by mabdullah » Logged
mustapha yusuf
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« Reply #7 on: November 17, 2010, 06:53:43 AM »

          As-Salaam Alaikum Wa-Rahmatullahi Wa-Barakatuhu

Virtues of the Prophet (PBUH) and Companions

Narrated Ibn Umar (Radi-Allahu 'anhu):

The Prophet (Sallallahu 'Alaihi Wa Sallam) said, "While a man was walking,
dragging his dress with pride, he was caused to be swallowed by the earth
and will go on sinking in it till the Day of Resurrection."

Bukhari Vol. 4 : No. 692

                                                                     Ma'asalaam
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« Reply #8 on: November 18, 2010, 05:31:51 AM »

          As-Salaam Alaikum Wa-Rahmatullahi Wa-Barakatuhu

Virtues of the Prophet (PBUH) and Companions



                                                                     Ma'asalaam


بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

وعليكم السللام ورحمة الله وبركاته

JazakAllah khair for sharing the Hadith.


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« Reply #9 on: November 18, 2010, 11:40:51 AM »

 بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيم

HADITH 5


مَنْ أَحْدَثَ فِي أَمْرِنَا هذَا مَا لَيْسَ مِنْهُ فَهُوَ رَدٌّ

رَوَاهُ البُخَارِيُّ

مَنْ عَمِلَ عَمَلاً لَيْسَ عَلَيْهِ أَمْرُناَ فَهُوَ رَدٌّ

رَوَاهُ مُسْلِمٌ


 
It is narrated on the authority of the Mother of the Believers, Umm 'Abdullah 'Aishah, radiyallahu 'anha, that the Messenger of Allah, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, said:

"Whosoever introduces into this affair of ours (i.e. into Islam) something that does not belong to it, it is to be rejected."  [Al-Bukhari & Muslim]
 
According to the version in Muslim, (it reads): "Whosoever works a work which has for it no command of ours is to be rejected."
________________________________________
background

Like Hadith 1, this hadith is one of the most important hadiths.  Imam Nawawi said it should be memorised by every Muslim.
 
This hadith is used as a criterion for judging external actions or performance of Ibadah. If an action is not done in accordance with the Shariah or the Sunnah of the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, it will be rejected and not accepted by Allah based on text of this hadith. This hadith complements Hadith 1, which was a criterion for judging the intentions or the internal actions of the heart. The Scholars say that the acceptance of actions of Ibadah is based on the above two conditions:
i.   The intention - the action should be done with sincerity, for the sake of only Allah.
ii.   It should be done in accordance with the Sunnah of the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam.
Apart from Hadith 1 and Hadith 5, the acceptance of actions can also be found in Surah Al-Kahf (18): ayat 110:
Whoever looks forward to meeting his Sustainer (on Day of Judgement), let him do righteous deeds, and let him not ascribe unto anyone or anything a share in the worship due to his Sustainer.
Emulating and following the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, is a Qur'anic obligation. Allah, the Almighty says:
Verily, in the apostle of God you have the best example to emulate for everyone who looks forward (with hope and awe) to Allah and the Last Day, and remembers Allah unceasingly. [Surah Al-Ahzab (33): ayat 21].
Say (O Prophet): "If you love Allah, follow me, (and) Allah will love you and forgive you your sins.
________________________________________
lessons


This hadith is related to a very important concept which is following the Sunnah and violating this concept will lead to bida'ah [which will be discussed in detail, insha Allah, in Hadith 28].
Scholars classify actions of the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, into actions done for the purpose of Ibadah (worshiping Allah) and actions which are not done for that purpose (i.e. customs, actions done haphazardly, etc.). There are clear indicators for actions done for the purpose of Ibadah such as commands to do or not to do something, warnings for not doing something, etc.
Muslims are only obliged to follow the first kind of Sunnah.
 
Looking at it in a positive way, the actions (i.e.forms of ibadah) that we do should be done in accordance with the Shariah or the Sunnah of the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, and to ensure this there is a criterion consisting of five aspects that will keep our actions in check:
i.   Time
Any ibadah that we do has to be done in it's designated or specified time.
E.g. There are fixed times in the day for the five prayers. For fasting, the month for fasting is Ramadhan. The period that we can fast is from fajr to sunset. Similarly, there is a specific time in the year when we can perform the Hajj - from the 8 to the 12 Zulhijjah.
ii.   Place
The Shariah has specified that certain ibadahs have to be performed in designated places. E.g. The places for performing the Hajj, I'tikaf, doing Ihram for Hajj have been fixed by the Shariah and this is something which is sometimes violated by Muslims, e.g. doing the Ihram (starting talbiyyah and niyyah for Hajj) in Jeddah is incorrect.
iii.   Quantity
For most of the ibadahs the Shariah has specified a certain number of times that the ibadahs or their components need to be performed. E.g. For prayers, there are specified number of rakaahs and sujud and for Tawaf there is a fixed number of rounds (7), etc. We should not violate these rules intentionally. To violate intentionally may make the ibadah subject to be rejected.
iv.   Way
Every ibadah was described or shown to us by the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam - being our best model to follow and emulate. The way that the ibadahs are performed by him have to be followed - it should not be violated. E.g. There are different ways of performing different prayers - Salat ul-Janazah has no ruku' or sujud. Even the size of the stones used for throwing at the Jamrat has been specified by the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, as not to be too big.

Before we perform any ibadah, we should know and learn the way the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, performed it and we should do it in the right way as he did it. The Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, said, "Pray as you have seen me praying." Many Muslims today violate the way ibadahs are performed, because of ignorance or because they do not bother to learn, and they end up doing the ibadah in the wrong way.
v.   Type
If the Shariah has specified a type of ibadah, then we should stick to that type. E.g. Al-Udhiah (sacrifice) - the type of animal to be sacrificed has been specified by the Shariah and this should not be violated. Recently a Sheikh in one of the Muslim countries made a fatwa that Muslims can use chicken as sacrifice - this is a violation of the type. If a Muslim cannot afford to offer a sacrifice, then they don't have to do it as it is not a wajib (i.e. an obligation). In certain years, some of the Sahabahs (companions) purposely did not perform the sacrifice so that the people did not think that it was a wajib.
 
A clear distinction should be made about the actions of the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam - whether they were done only from time to time or whether they were done continuously on a regular basis. For example, some of the nawafil are things which he, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, would do from time to time. We should observe this. E.g. Certain Surahs being recited on certain days - it is narrated that the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, would sometimes recite Surah As-Sajdah (32) and Surah Al-Insan (76) on Fridays. But some Muslims would recite these two Surahs every Friday. We should be aware of this because if we do something regularly people will think that it is wajib even though it is not.
If the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, did something only from time to time, then we too should do it from time to time, especially when we do it in congregation.
 
As it has been mentioned above, the actions of the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, were done for different purposes. There were actions which he, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, would do haphazardly. There are things he, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, would do because of the custom of that time. These actions were not done by the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, for the purpose of ibadah. We too should not do these actions for ibadah - our intentions should match the intentions of the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam. The following are some examples:
•   At the time of the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, the men used to have long hair - it was not done for the purpose of ibadah. So if anyone wants to keep long hair today, it should not be done for ibadah.
•   The Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, used to open the top buttons of his shirt - this was because it was hot and not because for the purpose of ibadah.
•   The turban, at the time of the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, was worn because it was the custom then.
•   Some hadiths mention the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, using a stick. Again this was not done for the purpose of ibadah.
We should not follow these examples of the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, for the purpose of ibadah.
How do we differentiate between the actions of the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, which were done for the purpose of ibadah and those which were not? The Scholars say if the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, commanded us to do an action or commanded us not to do something, then this is considered an ibadah. Or if the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, mentioned that the doer will receive certain rewards if an action is done, then it is an ibadah. Or if the failure for doing a certain action would result in punishment, then the action is an ibadah.
 
This issue of introducing something which doesn't belong to the Shariah is associated with the concept that Islam is a complete religion [Surah Al-Ma'idah (5): ayat 3]:
Today have I perfected your religion for you, and have bestowed upon you the full measure of My blessings, and willed that Islam shall be your Religion.
Since it is complete, there is no need for additions or deletions to the religion. Therefore to introduce some new matter into Islam or to delete/omit something from it is an affront to Allah and the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam.
 
Al-Imam al-Shatibi mentions that if certain actions are taken as ibadah where in reality they are not, this will lead to bid'ah. There is a hadith which tells the story of three men who only wanted to do 'good deeds' all the time - one said he will not get married, the second one said he will pray all night and not sleep, and the third said he will fast every day. When the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, heard this, he said that he, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, was the most pious and righteous amongst the people and yet he did not do the things the way the men wanted to do them. This shows that the actions that the three men thought were ibadah would have resulted in bid'ah as they weren't practiced by the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam.
 
Al-Shatibi also mentions that avoiding eating certain types of food for the purpose of ibadah should not be done. We can avoid these foods for health or other good reasons but not for the purpose of ibadah.
 
He also says that if there are two ways of fulfilling an obligation, we should follow the easier way. E.g. If the weather is cold and if we have the choice of using warm or cold water (for wudu'), we should use warm water. We shouldn't use cold water and inflict discomfort on ourselves, trying to show that we are stronger Muslims and hoping for extra rewards. Or if there is choice of going to two masjids (mosques) of different distances, we should go to the nearer one.
The Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, was passing through a place when he noticed someone standing in the middle of the street in the sun. The Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, asked the Sahabahs what this man was doing. They said that he made a commitment to fast while standing in the sun. The Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, told them to tell the man to continue his fasting (because this was a good thing to do anyway and fulfilling a commitment is an obligation) but to get out of the sun.
Scholars deduce that we should not attach any hardship to our ibadah hoping that it will make it more rewardable. Shariah is based on ease. Therefore we should always choose the easier way when performing an ibadah because this will enable us to do it properly - if we were to choose the difficult route then we may, after a while, find difficulty in keeping to our commitment in performing this ibadah. An attached hardship to an ibadah, which has not been specified by the Shariah, should be avoided - we should not place any hardship in performing any ibadah.
 
The Scholars say if someone violates the Shariah by adding something new to an ibadah, the ibadah is rejected depending on what kind of violation has been done. For example, in prayer if someone violates its conditions, then his ibadah will definitely not be accepted.
If an action is any kind of bid'ah, then it is subject to being rejected and the person who performed that action will be asked about it and might be subject to be punished. But if there is a valid excuse for doing that action, the action will not be rewarded but the person may be excused and not punished by Allah.
In worldly dealings and transactions (e.g. Al-Mu'amalat), if someone changes/modifies the principles of the dealings and this violates the Shariah law, then that dealing or transaction is rejected. E.g. changing trading based on haram principles, etc.
 
Ibnu Rajab mentions that there are certain actions, which violate the Shariah, but the Scholars have differing views about them. For example, if a man wears natural silk while performing his prayer, is his prayer acceptable? Or if someone prays in a house which is stolen, taken by force from the owner. Most Scholars say the action is acceptable but the person will be asked about his wrongdoing (wearing silk, praying in a stolen place).
________________________________________
conclusion


These hadiths selected by al-Imam al-Nawawi are more of principles and criteria that help the Muslim practice easily and fulfil his/her daily religious obligations.
Hadith 5 sets a criterion for the Muslim by which he can assess and evaluate his actions to ensure their rightness and acceptability.

« Last Edit: January 21, 2011, 05:55:56 AM by mabdullah » Logged
chakula
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« Reply #10 on: November 19, 2010, 03:40:26 AM »

Salamu Alaikum.

Jazakallah Khair.

MA'ASALAM.
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chakula
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« Reply #11 on: November 22, 2010, 03:52:28 AM »

Salam,

Ya Mu'allim kaifal Hal?

Ma'asalam.
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« Reply #12 on: November 22, 2010, 03:20:07 PM »

Salam,

Ya Mu'allim kaifal Hal?

Ma'asalam.

بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

وعليكم السللام ورحمة الله وبركاته


JazakAllah khair dear brother.
We are all learners of Allah's Deen Alhamdullilah.

.
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« Reply #13 on: November 23, 2010, 05:11:59 AM »

Salam,

O.K But we are waiting for the next coming hadith.

Ma'asalam.
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« Reply #14 on: November 23, 2010, 07:03:38 AM »

 بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيم

HADITH 6

إِنَّ الْحَلاَلَ بَيِّنٌ، وَإِنَّ الْحَرَامَ بَيِّنٌ، وَبَيْنَهُمَا أُمُورٌ مُشْتَبِهَاتٌ لاَيَعْلَمُهُنَّ كَثِيرٌ مِنَ النَّاسِ، فَمَنْ اتَّقَى الشُّبُهَاتِ فَقَد اسْتَبْرَأَ لِدِيْنِهِ وَعِرْضِهِ، وَمَنْ وَقَعَ فِي الشُّبُهَاتِ وَقَعَ فِي الْحَرَام، كَالرَّاعِي يَرْعَى حَوْلَ الْحِمَى يُوشِكُ أَنْ يَرْتَعَ فِيهِ، أَلاَ وَإِنَّ لِكُلِّ مَلِكٍ حِمًى، أَلاَ وَإِنَّ حِمَى اللهِ مَحَارِمُهُ، أَلاَ وَإِنَّ فِي الْجَسَدِ مُضْغَةً، إِذَا صَلُحَتْ صَلَحَ الْجَسَدُ كُلُّهُ، وَإِذَا فَسَدَتْ فَسَدَ الْجَسَدُ كُلُّهُ، أَلاَ وَهِيَ الْقَلْبُ

رَوَاهُ البُخَارِيُّ وَمُسْلِمٌ


On the authority of Abu 'Abdullah al-Nu'man bin Bashir, radiyallahu 'anhu, who said: I heard the Messenger of Allah, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, say:

"Truly, what is lawful is evident, and what is unlawful is evident, and in between the two are matters which are doubtful which many people do not know. He who guards against doubtful things keeps his religion and honour blameless, and he who indulges in doubtful things indulges in fact in unlawful things, just as a shepherd who pastures his flock round a preserve will soon pasture them in it. Beware, every king has a preserve, and the things Allah has declared unlawful are His preserves. Beware, in the body there is a flesh; if it is sound, the whole body is sound, and if it is corrupt, the whole body is corrupt, and behold, it is the heart."

[Al-Bukhari & Muslim]

________________________________________

background

The first thing to note is that Imam al-Bukhari recorded this hadith in the beginning of the Book of Trading (Kitab al-Buyu'), i.e. the kitab started off with this hadith. Some scholars say that Imam al-Bukhari was not only a muhadith who memorized, collected, recorded and compiled the hadith, but he was also a faqih (jurist) and his fiqh (jurisprudence) can be noted in so many ways. One is the tabwib, or the way that he gave the title for each chapter of his book. He would choose a certain statement which he would then use for the title of the chapter. This title reflects his fiqh. Also the way the hadith is recorded, where it is placed, under which chapter, and the fact that sometimes a hadith is repeated in many chapters - all these reflect the fiqh of Imam al-Bukhari.
But why did Imam al-Bukhari start Kitab al-Buyu' with this hadith? What does this imply?
There are many implications. One of them is that these doubtful matters are related to the things that we buy and sell, that we trade in. It is also said that his father once mentioned to him that for forty years he never brought anything doubtful into their home.
It can be observed that Imam al-Bukhari was influenced by his father's attitude in two ways:
i.   His father brought only halal things into the house. Whatever the family ate, drank, wore or used was halal. There were no doubts. This is the environment Imam al-Bukhari was brought and raised up in. It is also said that whenever his father made du'a to Allah subhanallahu ta'ala, Allah answered his du'a because of the fact that he never dealt with anything which was doubtful. This is reflected in the behaviour and attitude of Imam al-Bukhari. Hence like in this hadith where he chose to record it at the beginning of the chapter Kitab al-Buyu'.
ii.   Imam al-Bukhari is also known as a great muhadith. One of the things that a muhadith is involved in is al-Jarh wat-Ta`dil, the status of narrators of hadith - whether they can be taken
as saadiq, the one who is truthful and trustworthy, or as those who lie and cannot be taken as true narrators of hadith. The muhadithun uses specific terms to indicate the status of a narrator. When it comes to the status of the liars, or those who cannot be relied on, Imam al-Bukhari used a very astonishing style of al-Jarh wat-Ta`dil. He would not use direct terms - rather, he would use indirect ones. This also reflects his piety and righteousness. He would not simply label a narrator a liar. Instead he would say: "He has been labelled a liar".
Another matter which is related to Imam al-Bukhari is that whenever there was controversial issues or the clashing of views, he would follow the cautious approach. For example, whenever there was conflicting opinions whether something is an obligation or not, such as the recitation of Al-Fatihah in prayers, he would be in favour of the view that treats it as an obligation. Another school of thought has a different approach where some scholars follow whatever the evidence leads them to - provided it is sound and authentic.
________________________________________

lessons

The Scholars are of the view that the vast majority of acts fall into one of the first two categories: either it is evidently lawful or unlawful. Only a minority number of acts fall into the third category, that which is doubtful.
 
It can be noted here that the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, is using a metaphor, or analogy, twice in this hadith. As mentioned before, using metaphors or analogies in communicating ideas is very effective and powerful. From the metaphor and the way it is worded ("just as a shepherd who pastures his flock round a preserve will soon pasture them in it"), we can say that the doubtful things are closer to the unlawful things.
 
This hadith emphasizes the importance of glorifying Allah subhanallahu ta'ala. If we want to glorify Allah, we have to glorify His injunctions, commandments, whether they are obligations (so we perform them), or whether they are prohibitions (so we don't perform them). A Salaf once narrated: "Don't look at how minor the sin is that you committed, but look at the glory of the One you disobeyed, i.e. Allah subhanallahu ta'ala." A sin, even if it is a minor one, means disobedience to Allah, hence defying the Glorification of Allah. And the glorification of Allah is actually one of the principles of Tawhid.
We mentioned before that the great actions or the principles of Tawhid are done by the heart. That is why the heart is mentioned at the end of this hadith. Looking at the hadith at first glance, we might have asked what the heart has to do with the rest of the hadith. It is in the heart that we glorify Allah. It is the action of heart when we refrain from the unlawful. If the heart is strong, sound, has no weaknesses, and is full of iman (faith), then this would lead us to refrain ourselves from muharramat and makruhah (undesirable acts). Therfore only those with a strong and sound heart, i.e. the heart that is full of love for Allah, fear of Allah and glorification of Allah, will refrain from the doubtful matters. But those whose hearts are diseased and whose iman is weak, may go around the doubtful matters. Little by little they will indulge in the makruhah, delaying things and eventually getting into the muharram or delaying or even negating the wajib. It has to do with the status of the heart. That is why the scholars talk about the life of the heart. For example, when you see Muslims praying in the masjid (mosque), you see hundreds of people praying together. But what distinguishes them is the status of their hearts, whether it is devoted to Allah or not. How strong and pure is the heart? How sound is the heart? That's where people differ. This is what we should concern ourselves with, and compete - taking care of our hearts, purifying them, taking away any diseases from our hearts, to activate iman in the heart in order to make it alive.
 
The Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, mentioned about Abu Bakr as-Sidiq where he said that If you put the iman of all the Muslim ummah on one scale and the iman of Abu Bakr as-Sidiq on the other scale, the iman of Abu Bakr as-Sidiq would outweigh the iman of the whole ummah. The Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, also said that there is something in the heart of Abu Bakr as-Sidiq that distinguished it from others, and as it is known he was called as-Sidiq. The Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, once said about Abu Bakr: "When I call someone to Islam, he will have some hesitation...except Abu Bakr as-Sidiq. The minute I talked to him about Islam, straight away he believed in me, he believed in Allah and that I am the Messenger of Allah." So it has to do with the heart that distinguished Abu Bakr as-Sidiq to be al-Khalifatul-Awal, and to be the first Sahabi (Companion). From this, it can be said that every Muslim should care about his/her heart, purify it and activate iman in the heart, and practise the great principles of Tawhid, such as to love Allah, to fear Him, to rely on Him, to have hope in Him, to seek help fro Him and to seek refuge in Him so that the heart is alive, activated and full of iman. And at the same time we have to make sure that there should be no diseases or anything bad within our hearts, e.g. greediness, envy, arrogance, etc. Only then will the heart be sound.
 
In another related hadith the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, mentioned that: "The heart will be exposed to fitan (trials) again and again. The heart which is influenced by fitnah will have a black spot placed on it. And if the heart avoids the fitnah, there will be a white spot on it." The heart then is either a pure one, or a heart that has been sealed after being affected by fitan or prohibited or doubtful matters again and again. Even though the heart pumps out blood and the person is alive, the heart in reality is not alive, because the iman is weak, making the heart unsound. Hence avoiding and getting away from the fitan is important in order to have a pure heart, especially in these contemporary times where it is full of evil that attracts the heart.
 
The evil doers promote evil and impose it on others. So if a Muslim is not careful, his/her heart might be stolen. As mentioned by the great contemporary scholar, Sheikh Abdur Rahman ad-Dusari, there are many thieves today who steal the hearts, sometimes without the owner even being aware of it.
If you read any hadith of the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, it talks about a matter, whether it is something good that we should do, or something bad that we should not do. And then in the hadith the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, will mention a principle. Usually, the principle, which is the main point of the hadith, is the last words or sentence. The hadith above mentions about the lawful and unlawful being evident, and then there is the doubtful matter. And then there is the last sentence of the hadith. This is the bottom-line of the hadith, the main thing, the main issue. If we want to get away from the muharramat (unlawful), and also from the doubtful matters, we have to care about our heart. We have to purify our heart and make sure it is sound and alive, and it is not lost from us.
 
One wisdom we can learn from the hadith is from the way the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, tells us about something: he will discuss a concept and then give us the principle. This principle helps us not only with the concept mentioned in the hadith, but it actually helps us, if we use it in the right way with the right understanding, in other similar matters and situations. If we care about our heart, not only will we be able to avoid the doubtful matters, we can apply the same principle to other similar concepts or issues, e.g. in avoiding bad manners for there are also doubtful matters in the concept of akhlaq (values).
 
It was mentioned earlier that Imam al-Bukhari recorded this hadith in Kitab ul-Buyu' (Trading). When it comes to trading there are many matters that are doubtful, matters which existed then and even now, e.g. where cheating is done professionally. Therfore we have to be careful if the matter related to trading is clear and evident, permissible or not permissible, or if it is doubtful, in which case we have to avoid it.
 
Related to the above issue is the issue of al-ma'kulat (food) where there are many doubtful matters about what we eat. If we check the ingredients that are used in many manufactured food today, e.g. biscuits, canned food and preserved food, there are ingredients that might raise the question of doubtfulness of what we eat. For example, lecithin is used in the manufacture of foodstuff especially in the west and Muslim countries import a lot of food from the west. If it is not specified otherwise then there is a high probability that the lecithin is derived from khanzir (pig) because it is cheaper to produce. Otherwise, it should be mentioned whether it is derived from soya or plants or from halal production.
Another ingredient is emulsifier. Emulsifiers are labelled as the letter 'E' followed by a series of numbers. Some emulsifers contain things that are not permissible. There are efforts done by some Muslim scientists where they try to identify such ingredients. This can then be used as a checklist to check against when we buy food for our family. We should be very careful when we read the ingredients of foodstuff if we want to ensure that what we eat is halal. It is mentioned in a hadith that if what we eat is haram, even our du'a / supplication is not accepted by Allah.
We should take care of our health. A lot of what we eat today or what is in the market is not fresh. There are so many preservatives, colouring and chemicals which, if used excessively, might affect our health. We have to be careful in the sense that although it is in general permissible, if it is used excessively it will affect our health - then we are not doing good for our health as a Muslim.
 
Some of the interpreters of the collection of the Forty Hadiths try to identify or pinpoint some matters that are doubtful in general. Sometimes they mention matters or controversial issues where the related evidences from the Qur'an and Sunnah are conflicting and there is no apparent way to resolve the conflict. They mention general matters where views of scholars may also be conflicting. Some permissible matters might lead a person to do what is forbidden or lead him to fail to do what is obligatory. For example, the issue of staying up late. According to the view of some scholars, it is makrooh to stay up late for no valid reason, just chatting or doing nothing or just wasting time. Even though in general it is permissible, this might lead to other consequences where it might cause the delaying or failing to do the wajib or it might lead us into doing muharram. The scholars also say that there are matters which were inferred or concluded based on certain hadiths where the authenticity of the hadith is questionable. They say this can also be treated as doubtful matters.
The main key to the issue that the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, gave us, again, is the heart. If we care about our heart, we will be more sensible. If the heart is sound, strong, full of iman (faith), we will be more responsible, and we will care more about what we do and what we don't do. This becomes the measure to those matters which are doubtful.
Even though some interpreters gave some principles by which we can distinguish those doubtful matters, it can still be debated or questioned. But if the heart is good, strong and full of iman, the person will be able to distinguish between the doubtful matters and other clear evident matters, where he would also be able to refrain from the doubtful matters. Sometimes people may know something is haram and not just doubtful, but yet they still get involved in it because of the weak status of their hearts.
 
So here again we would like to emphasize the main key to dealing with the problem of doubtful matters is the heart. If we all care about the heart, make sure it is in a good status, then insha-Allah we will be able to be saved by the help of Allah. We will be guided by Allah, because the heart will be full of light. When we say the heart is full of light or guided by light, there are things that we can do that help us to identify and avoid doubtful matters:
•   Al-Muhasabah - self accountability
•   Al-Muraqabah - self reckoning
•   Dzikrullah - the remembrance of Allah. Imam Nawawi himself compiled another book, the Book of Azkar, where he recorded the hadith about azkar. It is mentioned by the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, that remembering Allah will purify the heart. However, we have to do it regularly and on a continuous basis. We should do the azkar after prayers.
Another thing is as-Salatu 'ala an-Nabi (the sending of prayers and blessings to the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam). This is also an important matter. We don't train ourselves to practice this Salatu 'ala an-Nabi, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam. We just write SAW or an alphabet after mentioning the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam. We even abbreviate the phrase "subhanahu wata'ala". These are mistakes because du'a cannot be abbreviated. This is commonsense. Why do we abbreviate? Is it to save our time? Or to save ink? We have to practice saying/writing "sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam" in full because we are encouraged to do so. The Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, said: "Do you know the greedy? The one whom my name is mentioned in front of him or her, and he does not say "sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam".
In another hadith the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, said that if we practice as-Salatu 'ala an-Nabi, Allah will send His "prayers" and blessings upon us (yusalli 'alaih). What does this mean? The scholars explain this by saying that Allah will guide the person who practices as-Salatu 'ala an-Nabi and gives him the light by which to distinguish between the good and the bad. It is a light that will be in the heart. This is termed as as-solatu minallah 'ala al-'abd. Moreover each time we say "sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam" we will be rewarded ten times. Hence we should strive to not lose out on obtaining all these good things. We should love the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, more than ourselves, our families, our parents or our children.
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conclusion

There are doubtful matters that a Muslim might face in his/her everyday dealings and activities. This hadith helps the Muslim in dealing with such matters. There is an early ongoing preparation which is needed in such a case - to purify one's heart. There are some actions that can help us achieve this task, like: hayya' (modesty), murakabah (self reckoning), muhasabah (self accountability), dzikr (remembrance of Allah), and as-Salatu 'ala an-Nabi, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam. These are things that, insha Allah, can help us and enlighten and purify our heart, and also help us to identify and avoid the doubtful matters - this is the main point, the key, the principle of the hadith.
"Beware; in the body there is a flesh; if it is sound, the whole body is sound, and if it is corrupt, the whole body is corrupt, and behold, it is the heart."
 

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