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Author Topic: Nawawi's 40 Hadith explanation  (Read 168234 times)
mabdullah
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« Reply #45 on: January 21, 2011, 12:41:24 PM »

Salam,

Were have you been 2days or you should provide a chance for us to have a very good understanding of the hadith context have been posted before proceeding?

Ma'asalam.


سْمِ اللهِ، وَالصَّلَاةُ وَالسَّلَّامُ عَلَى رَسُولِ اللهِ

وعليكم السلام ورحمة الله وبركاته

BarakAllahu feek Akhi Karim for your keen interest. MashaAllah.

Recently I have been adding Arabic text in all previously posted Ahadith which took some time. Next Hadith will be very soon InshaAllah.

You are right, this also gives time to have a very good understanding of the hadith context have been posted before proceeding

Aslam u laikum

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mabdullah
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« Reply #46 on: January 21, 2011, 12:45:59 PM »

 بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

HADITH 25

يَا رَسُولَ اللهِ، ذَهَبَ أَهْلُ الدُّثُورِ بِالأُجُورِ، يُصَلُّونَ كَمَا نُصَلِّي، وَيَصُومُونَ كَمَا نَصُومُ، وَيَتَصَدَّقُونَ بِفُضُولِ أَمْوَالِهِمْ، قَالَ: أَوَلَيْسَ قَدْ جَعَلَ اللهُ لَكُمْ مَا تَصَدَّقُونَ؟ إِنَّ لََََكُمْ بِكُلِّ تَسْبِيحَةٍ صَدَقَةً، وَكُلِّ تَكْبِيرَةٍ صَدَقَةً، وَكُلِّ تَحْمِيدَةٍ صَدَقَةً، وَكُلِّ تَهْلِيلَةٍ صَدَقَةً، وَأَمْرٍ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ صَدَقَةً، وَنَهْيٍ عَنْ مُنْكَرٍ صَدَقَةً، وَفِي بُضْعِ أَحَدِكُمْ صَدَقَةً. قَالُوا: يَا رَسُولَ اللهِ أَيَأْتِي أَحَدُنَا شَهْوَتَهُ وَيَكُونُ لَهُ فِيهَا أَجْرٌ؟ قَالَ: أَرَأَيْتُمْ لَوْ وَضَعَهَا فِي حرَامٍ، أَكَانَ عَلَيْهِ وِزْرٌ؟ فَكَذَلِكَ إِذَا وَضَعَهَا فِي الْحَلاَلِ كَانَ لَهُ أَجْرٌ

رَوَاهُ مُسْلِمٌ


Abu Dharr, radiyallahu 'anhu, reported that some of the Companions of the Messenger of Allah, sallallahu alayhi wasallam, said to him:
"O Messenger of Allah, the rich have taken away all the rewards. They observe the prayer as we do, and they keep the fasts as we do, and they give sadaqah (charity) from their surplus riches." Upon this he (the Prophet) said: "Has Allah not prescribed for you (a course) by following which you can also do sadaqah? Verily in every tasbih (i.e. saying Subhanallah) there is a sadaqah, every takbir (i.e. saying Allahu Akbar) is a sadaqah, every tahmid (i.e. saying Alhamdulillah) is a sadaqah, every tahlil (i.e. saying Lailaha illallah) is a sadaqah, enjoining of good is a sadaqah, forbidding of evil is a sadaqah, and having sexual intercourse with your wife is a sadaqah. They (the Companions) said: "O Messenger of Allah, is there reward for him who satisfies his sexual passion among us?" He said: "Tell me, if he were to devote it to something forbidden, would it not be a sin on his part? Similarly, if he were to devote it to something lawful, he should have a reward."
[Muslim]
________________________________________

background

In another hadith recorded by both Muslim and Al-Bukhari, it is mentioned that the questioners were the poor of the Muhajruun or immigrants from Makkah. Ibn Rajab says that this hadith shows that those poor people thought that giving sadaqah (charity) can only be done through money, something which they could not afford. The Prophet, sallallahu alayhi wasallam, told them that all good deeds are considered as charitable acts.
 
There are other versions this hadith of Abu Dharr as well as some other hadiths which show similar meanings. One of them is in Sahih Muslim which says that: "Every good act is an act of charity". In another version the hadith, it says: "Your smile to your brother is a charitable act. Ordering good is a charitable act. Forbidding evil is a charitable act. Helping a man who has bad eyesight to see things is a charitable act. Removing a stone, rubbish or bones is a charitable act. Emptying your cup in the cup of your brother is a charitable act."
Also in the Sahihain (Al-Bukhari and Muslim) it is mentioned that "A man spending money upon his wife is charity". In another hadith in the Sahihain it is mentioned that "No Muslim plants a plant or soils a seed and has it eaten by a bird, animal or human except that it will be a charitable act for him".
________________________________________

lessons

According to Ibn Rajab, the hadith proves that the Companions of the Prophet, sallallahu alayhi wasallam, were so eager to do good acts and charitable deeds. They had very strong desires to do al-khayr and charity in order to please Allah subhana wa ta'ala. They were sad when they could not afford to donate their money to charity especially as it was being done by some other people. They had a strong desire to spend they wealth and to do good deeds when they saw some members among the Companions doing it. They wanted to be like them in terms of rewards and tawab. They were able to do salah, fasting and other ibadah but one thing they could not do was giving money or sadaqah because they did not have any. But they were told to do more dhikr which is equal to giving money or charity in terms of rewards.
We can see here how the Companions were so keen to do all forms and acts of ibadah in order to please Allah subhana wa ta'ala. This should be the case with every Muslim. We should be eager to do every good deed which pleases Allah. At least we should have the will and desire to do it even if we cannot do it.
 
Ibn Rajab states that the Islamic concept of charity in its broad sense can be divided into two types: -
1.   The acts of goodness and kindness one can have towards other humans. Ibn Rjab gave some examples such as education and teaching people, teaching the Qur'an, removing anything that harms people in their paths, and also doing whatever that contributes to the well-being of the Muslim community. This also includes making du'a (prayer) and istighfar (forgiveness) for the other Muslims.
2.   Keeping any harmful action away from others. This means that we must not perform a harmful act towards other people if it does not benefit them. It is the minimum thing that one can afford to do to benefit others.
 
Charitable acts are rewarded even without niyah or intentions. This can be understood from the first impression or the general observable meaning of the text of the hadith. But it seems that Ibn Rajab is not happy with this interpretation. He says that a charitable act, according to many scholars, is conditional to a good intention. That is we must do it for the sake of Allah only and to seek His Pleasure. According to Ibn Rajab, this view is supported by two evidences:
1.   In another version of the hadith good intention was mentioned and hence it applies to the other places where good intention was not mentioned.
2.   In Surah al-Nisa Ayah 114, Allah says: "There is no good in most of their secret talks except one who exhorts to a good deed of charity or goodness or conciliation between people. To him who does this seeking the pleasure of Allah, We shall soon give him a reward of high value." Ibn Rajab says that in this verse it is mentioned that the reward is conditional to a good intention only.
 
Each of the phrases of dhikr Allah such as al-tahmid, al-tahlil, and al-tasbih is a charitable act. This show us the importance if dhikr Allah. There are general types of dhikr and there are specific types of dhikr. Muslims should remember Allah all the time. The recommended time to do dhikr is during the morning and the evening and after the salawat. Every Muslim should maintain and observe the dhikr in order to become among those who are described as al-dhakirun.
 
The acts of pleasing Allah are very wide and affordable to everyone. People differ in their ability, preference, potential, etc. There is room for all where every one has the ability to perform some act of charity. Therefore a Muslim should take this advantage and do good deeds which are more convenient and suitable for him or her. However, we are encouraged to do as much of good deeds and charitable acts as we can.
There is story that Imam al-Dhahabi related about a dialogue between Ibn al-Juwairiyah and Imam Malik. He said that Ibn al-Juwairiyah wrote a letter to Imam Malik about ibadah and advised him to do more acts of worship. Imam Malik was well known for his lectures in the Masjid al-Nabawi where he used to disseminate ilm (knowledge) and the sunnah of the Prophet, sallallahu alayhi wasallam, that he learned. Ibn Juwairiyah was known of his piety and devotions to worship. Imam Malik replied Ibn al-Juwairiyah's letter saying that Allah has divided the acts of deeds among people as He divided rizq or wealth among them. Some are given talents in knowledge and how to spread it while others are given talents in jihad, fasting and so on. So what he (Imam Malik) was given is not less than what Ibn al-Juwairiyah have been given and he hoped that both of them are on the right track and do the things that please Allah subhana wa ta'ala.
Also In the stories of the Sahabah we can find that every one was good at doing some specific acts. This means talents are divided among people. Ibn Masud said that fasting the sunnah prevented him from reciting the Qur'an. It made him weak. So he chose the recitation of the Qur'an over the non-obligatory fasting. This is mentioned by al-Shatibi in his al-I'tisam.
So people have choices and preferences in doing acts of ibadah according to their ability and this is acceptable in Islam. Only a few people may have the ability to do many things together. One of them was Abu Bakar al-Siqdiq, radiyallahu 'anhu. He was given the talents to perform all forms of ibadah and was good at doing them.
Ibn al-Qayyim mentions said that it is recommended to compete towards good deeds as mentioned in the Qur'an. People are allowed to compete for goodness and for the acts of charity in accordance with their talents and ability. There is a story of a man who was in Madinah who usually goes to salah with some money in his pocket. After the salah and on his way back, he would give the money to any needy person that he met. He was well known for doing this kind of charity. Then there is the story of an old man who was over 80 years old who used to do many good activities for the people of the village. He used to walk around the streets of the village and cleaned the roads and streets. Every morning after the Fajar prayers he would go to the school and clean the muddy and dusty road to that school. He was an illiterate man but yet he did a lot of good jobs for the villagers which other people did not bother to do. This is indeed a great deed in the sight of Allah. It is a good opportunity to get the pleasure of Allah. Therefore every Muslim should be doing this kind of action which is actually easy and simple but has great rewards. We cannot do all charitable acts at one time but we have to do whatever we can do. We have to have the intention to do any charitable act. The hadith that says: "Your smile to your brother is a charitable act" is a good example of this type of ibadah. It is common now to see many people who have the habit of smiling at other people. They are in fact good at this kind of charitable act. They are blessed with this behavior. It has a positive influence on other's behavior. When you smile to your brother and say "Assalamu Alaikum" to him, you are in fact making him happy and this act will create a good environment among the Muslim community.
 
Scholars have emphasised the distinction between "Ghibtah" and "Hasad". Al-Ghibtah means to have the desire to achieve the good qualities that others have. Al-Ghibtah is a positive behavior which motivates you to do good, as good as other people do. For example, when you see a knowledgeable person, you admire and wish to be knowledgeable like him; when you see someone who do a lot of ibadah, you wish to do the same; when you see a rich person who pays charity, you admire him and wish to be like him. So you admire these people for their good actions and hence you wish to be like them. Al-Ghibtah, then, is actually good and desirable. It influences our attitude and behavior in a positive way.
Al-Hasad, on the other hand, means 'envy'. It is a negative behavior which is prohibited and condemned in Islam. The Prophet, sallallahu alayhi wasallam, said that al-Hasad demolishes the rewards. It is envy and jealousy that occurs when you see someone who is given some privileges that you do not have. It is Allah who gives His Bounty to anyone He choses. So we should not feel any objection to Allah's plan. That is why al-Hasad is considered a very bad behavior and a major sin.
 
We are encouraged to perform the acts of ordering good things and prohibiting evils because when we do it we contribute to the well-being of the society. We do not do it to offend or put down someone. We do it in order to help them. Carrying out this concept will always contribute to the betterment of the whole society. We have to do it with tolerance and patience so that the other party may accept it. When we do this act with good intentions, the other person sees it positively. He sees it as caring and concern from our side. So most likely, he will accept it. We should not do it in a harsh or aggressive way that it may offend others.
________________________________________

conclusion

Scholars state that permissible acts can be turned into ibadah. These acts can be rewarded with the condition of having good intentions. So every normal activity that we do in our everyday life can be turned into ibadah and we will be rewarded for doing it with good intentions. For example, when you are driving or putting petrol into your car with the intention of benefiting your family or relatives, you will be rewarded and this act will be considered as ibadah. Also, when you make a telephone call to your family or relatives with good intentions, you will be rewarded for that. Hence, these simple acts of our everyday life can be turned into ibadah and be rewarded. We need to train ourselves with this habit and insha Allah we will get a great reward from Allah.

« Last Edit: January 21, 2011, 12:50:15 PM by mabdullah » Logged
mabdullah
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« Reply #47 on: January 23, 2011, 01:20:07 PM »


 بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

HADITH 26

 كُلُّ سُلاَمَى مِنَ النَّاسِ عَلَيْهِ صَدَقَةٌ كُلَّ يَوْمٍ تَطْلُعُ فِيهِ الشَّمْسُ: تَعْدِلُ بَيْنَ اثْنَينِ صَدَقَةٌ، وَتُعِينُ الرَّجُلَ فِي دَابَّتِهِ فَتَحْمِلُهُ عَلَيْهَا أَوْ تَرْفَعُ لَهُ عَلَيْهَا مَتَاعَهُ صَدَقَةٌ، وَالْكَلِمَةُ الطَّيِّبَةُ صَدَقَةٌ، وَبِكُلِّ خَطْوَةٍ تَمْشِيهَا إِلَى الصَّلاَةِ صَدَقَةٌ، وَتُمِيطُ الأَذَى عَن الطَّرِيقِ صَدَقَةٌ

رَوَاهُ الْبُخَارِيُّ وَمُسْلِمٌ

Abu Hurairah, radiyallahu 'anhu, reported that the Messenger of Allah, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, said :


"On every person's joints or small bones (i.e. fingers and toes), there is sadaqah (charity) every day the sun rises. Doing justice between two people is sadaqah; assisting a man to mount his animal, or lifting up his belongings onto it is sadaqah; a good word is sadaqah; every step you take towards prayer is sadaqah; and removing harmful things from pathways is sadaqah."
[Al-Bukhari & Muslim]

background

The content of this hadith is the same as the previous one, Hadith 25. One possibility why this is so is that Al-Imam An-Nawawi wanted to emphasise the importance of sadaqah (charitable acts) so he decided to repeat the meaning of the previous hadith. Another possibility is that this hadith may contain more examples of sadaqah than what was mentioned in the previous one. A third possibility is the influence of Al-Imam Muslim on Imam Nawawi, who has written commentaries on Sahih Muslim. Imam Muslim recorded many hadiths which address the issue of sadaqah. It can be concluded that what has happened is due to the influence of Imam Nawawi's involvement in this great scholarly research on explaining and interpreting Sahih Muslim.



Ibn Rajab quotes other hadiths with similar meanings. Two were recorded by Imam Muslim. From this a possibility of influence can be derived. A third hadith is recorded by Imam Al-Bukhari and Imam Muslim where the hadith mentions the number of bones as 360. In this hadith the number is not mentioned. It only mentions every small joint (bone).

In one of these hadiths, the performance of the Duha prayer is mentioned as a substitution of some charitable acts. The Prophet Muhammad, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, said that the praying of al-Duha has the same reward of doing these charitable acts. In the hadith that is related by Imam Al-Bukhari and Imam Muslim, it mentions something that is not mentioned in the previous hadith. One more charitable act that is mentioned by Ibn Rajab is helping the one who is in need. Prophet Muhammad, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, emphasized this idea: if a Muslim cannot help the one who is in need, he should abstain from evil and not harm others.

lessons

The hadith shows the great creation of man which has been emphasised in many surahs in the Qur'an. Ibn Rajab says when the Prophet Muhammad, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, mentions these small bones or joints, he is emphasizing their structure and creation which are great bounties of Allah subhana wa ta'ala. The Prophet Muhammad, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, calls upon us to be thankful to Allah by doing charitable acts for each one of these bones.

Al-Ustaz Jamaludin Zarabozo highlights the significance of the word 'salameh', the small bone, when he refers to the small bones in the hands and feet and how they are put together. Once again, we notice how scholars may be influenced by each other. It is not strange to notice that Ustaz Jamaludin is influenced by Ibn Rajab since he translated most of his work. He asks the Muslims to see how these bones are magnificently put together. It is their interaction that allows the dexterity and speed that the creatures possess in their hands. It also gives proper balance to the feet.

Al-Shaikh Al-Bitar, one of the commentators on An-Nawawi's Forty Hadith, states that these bones are some of the keys to the progress and civilization of man. These bones enable human beings to move, grasp, construct and build things. Most of what people perform and what has been manufactured is due to these small and minute bones that have been created by Allah in this impressive and marvelous way. Therefore, he continues to say, these are great blessings for which a Muslim must be thankful to Allah. We can be thankful by doing the above mentioned charitable acts: to do good deeds, to help others, and to benefit the community.



Ibn Rajab mentions that doing these charitable acts mentioned in the hadith is an obligation upon each Muslim. Moreover, he classifies thankfulness to Allah into two categories:


Obligatory (wajib) thankfulness. Muslims are required to fulfill the obligations (wajibat) and refrain from the prohibitions (muharramat). This is the minimum level of being thankful to Allah. To be thankful to Allah requires one to refrain from disobedience (ma'siah) to Allah, to strongly disapprove sin, and not to misuse or abuse any of our limbs (jawareh) or whatever Allah has bestowed upon us. Man has been given one of the most important bounties from Allah and that is sight. Man must not use it in disobedience. Allah bestowed us with the bounty of hearing and we should use it in a beneficial way.

Preferable (mustahab) thankfulness. This is for Muslims who seek to be among the righteous and competing believers. This type can be classified into subcategories:

What is beneficial to the community such as what is mentioned in this hadith.
Limited to the person who performs it, as mentioned in Hadith 25.
Though the above mentioned classifications may be perceived positively or negatively, it should not take us away from the great meaning of the charitable acts where we can look at them from a different angle. Not from the angle of whether they are preferable (mandoub: if we do it, we will be rewarded and if we do not do it, we will not be blamed) or obligatory (wajib). Sometimes preferable things become obligatory. For instance, if a blind man wants to cross the road and you are the only one to help him, helping him becomes obligatory. If every one of us is expecting someone else to help the blind man, he will end up with nobody willing to help him. This sort of attitude will weaken the bonding within the community. There are many negative examples that can be seen today. The recklessness of some Muslims who do not help needy people is often noticed in the Muslim community these days. As a result, the Muslim is blamed when he is the only one who is capable of doing that action but does not do it.



This hadith aims to emphasize the charitable acts that benefit the society since they are great deeds and the people who do them are rewarded. Most Muslims forget these charitable acts. Another hadith emphasises that Muslims are like one body where they care for each other. We should set ourselves as models in our morality, behaviour, values and qualities in order for others to follow our steps and listen to us. Only by this will the level of confidence be increased in the community. People will listen to each other when they see good examples and this is what meant by the verse that the Prophet Muhammad, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, is a good model for Muslims

As Muslims, we have to observe the charitable acts. We should do as much as we can without making any commitment to any of them. These charitable acts are not done regularly as the 5 prayers. We do them on our convenience and according to our ability. By performing these acts regularly, we will be closer to Allah. When every Muslim exercises these charitable acts, we will end up with a harmonious and cooperative society. By doing this, we contribute to the increasing of goodness and the minimising of evil - this is the main purpose of da'wah.



This hadith emphasises the significance of certain deeds: bringing about justice between two people and reconciling them. Getting people who deviated in their thoughts back to the community is part of islah (reconciliation). When the Khawarej started thinking of fighting their own community, Abdullah bin Abbas, radiyallahu 'anhu, went to them and had a dialogue with them. He tried to remove any misconceptions. He was successful in getting two-thirds of them into the Muslim community. This is one meaning of charitable acts. Another meaning is to give help to those who are in need for help. We should not wait until we are asked. We have to offer help when we see people in need. This is what is meant by wala' (loyality) to the community.

Saying a good word is a charitable act, as mentioned in Hadith 25. There are many ways that we can do this. For example, when we notice that someone is unhappy, we can bring pleasure to him by saying a good word to him and relieving his sadness or worry.

Another deed is the step to prayer. We know that prayer is obligatory, but by walking to prayer we perform a charitable act in every step. When Muslims keep this in their minds, they will be encouraged to do such deeds.

The last charitable act that is mentioned in this hadith is removing a harmful thing from the road or from someone's pathway. Some people may look at this as insignificant or unimportant. But this does not mean that the act is degrading. In the sight of Allah it is a great act and we will be rewarded for doing it. Doing such an act may prevent a terrible accident from happening. For example, omitting a nail from the street may prevent car accidents and consequently keep the safety of our community. We should not care about the comments of others because we are doing it for the sake of Allah. The more we have the intention that we are doing these charitable acts for the sake of Allah, the more will be the reward from Allah subhana wa ta'ala.

conclusion

Islam calls for and encourages its followers to build a caring society, where members of the society care for one another, support one another and help one another. Social charitable acts discussed above are considered obligatory daily activities which form ways and means of being thankful to Allah. This concept needs to be promoted in the classroom, masjid and the media in every possible way.

Unfortunately, contemporary media plays a negative role in this sense. Movies promote negative values which lead to an uncaring society, resulting in, for example, selfishness, greediness and ego-centric personalities.

One way of changing this negative role to a positive one is to change the existing concept of entertainment. Another alternative is to initiate new branches of communication such as educational communication and psychology of the media.

 
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« Reply #48 on: January 23, 2011, 01:24:51 PM »

 بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

HADITH 27



الْبِرُّ حُسْنُ الخُلُقِ، وَالإِثْمُ مَا حَاكَ فِي نَفْسِكَ وَكَرِهْتَ أَنْ يَطَّلِعَ عَلَيْهِ النَّاسُ

رَوَاهُ مُسْلِمٌ

أَتَيْتُ رَسُولَ اللهِ صلی الله عليه و سلم فَقَالَ: جِئْتَ تَسْأَلُ عَنِ الْبِرِّ؟ قُلْتُ: نَعَمْ، قَالَ: اسْتَفْتِ قَلْبَكَ، الْبِرُّ مَا اطْمَأَنَّتْ إِلَيْهِ النَّفْسُ وَاطْمَأَنَّ إِلَيْهِ الْقَلْبُ، وَالإِثْمُ مَا حَاكَ فِي النَّفْسِ وَتَرَدَّدَ فِي الصَّدْرِ وَإِنْ أَفْتَاكَ النَّاسُ وَأَفْتَوْكَ

حَدِيثٌ حَسَنٌ رَوَيْنَاهُ فِي مُسْنَدَي الإِمَامَيْنِ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ حَنْبَلٍ وَالدَّارِمِيِّ بِإِسْنَادٍ حَسَنٍ


 

Al-Nawwas bin Sam'an, radiyallahu 'anhu, reported that the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, said:

"Righteousness is good character, and sin is that which wavers in your heart and which you do not want people to know about."
[Muslim]

According to Wabisah bin Ma'bad, radiyallahu 'anhu, who said:

I came to the Messenger of Allah, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, and he said: "You have come to ask about righteousness ?" " Yes," I answered. He said: "Consult your heart. Righteousness is that about which the soul feels tranquil and the heart feels tranquil, and sin is what creates restlessness in the soul and moves to and fro in the breast, even though people give you their opinion (in your favour) and continue to do so."
[A good hadith transmitted from the Musnads of the two Imams, Ahmad bin Hanbal and Al-Darimi]

background

The first thing that should be pointed out is that even though the second hadith is weak by itself, due to supporting evidence it is raised to the level of hasan (authentic). These two hadiths state the meaning of righteousness and sinfulness.

lessons

Ibn Rajab states that the term 'bir' which is used in this hadith is actually used in two senses: (a) treating others in a good manner, and (b) all acts of good deeds and worshipping Allah. Based on this, the first statement in the first hadith can be interpreted as meaning the most essential aspect of righteousness is good character. And Ibn Rajab extends this meaning by saying that good character can be interpreted as all good manners mentioned in the Qur'an. Consequently, according to Ibn Rajab, the two meanings of bir are there.



Allah has created us with a pure innate or natural disposition that is called fitra, as mentioned in other hadiths. This means to love the truth and the good and to hate falsehood and evil. Consequently, good believers with pure fitra should never confuse truth with falsehood.

The second hadith guides us to consult our heart regarding doubtful matters. If the heart is in tranquility, that implies that it is bir or righteousness. If the heart is not tranquil, one should abstain from carrying out such an act or doubtful matter. However, it should be noted that fitra is subject to corruption and can be spoiled due to the influence of bad environment - a person may start to like and appreciate what is bad or evil and dislike truth and goodness. Here, the heart is diseased or even dead. Such a person cannot use his heart as a measure to judge what is good and bad because the fitra is already corrupted.



Sin is what wavers or trembles your soul. This portion of the hadith defines a sinful act as an act for which its performer deserves blame. Imam Qurtabi gives the previous interpretation. Ustaz Jamaludin Zarabozo states that in this hadith the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, gave very important signs of sin. The first one is an internal sign within the human being. It is the feelings of the soul with respect to any particular act. The second sign is also about the internal feelings but it deals with the outward reaction to the act itself. Sin causes a wholesome soul to be uneasy and troubled. The soul is unhappy and worried about sin and its consequences. Ustaz Jamaludin remarks that these signs occur because the person is naturally disposed to favour what leads to positive results and avoid what leads to negative results. The commentators of this hadith stress that the 'people' referred to here are the respected and righteous people.



The two hadiths reveal a significant aspect of Islam that is an internal controlling and guiding system that is established as a result of several factors:


The pure fitra (natural disposition). Allah created everybody with a pure fitra and not just Muslims. The Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, mentions many factors in the environment that play an influential role in subjecting the fitra to corruption.
The realization of tawhid. This means practicing all the essentials of tawhid like loving Allah, seeking His Help as the only refuge, depending on Him (tawakul), asking for His Mercy, and many other essentials associated with the idea of tawhid.
Adhering to shari'ah instructions.
Seeking knowledge.
Tazkiyah and tarbiyah - that is the purification of the soul and the heart of the Muslim.
The above mentioned factors and many others are interrelated and altogether lead to the establishment of the internal controlling system. However, this system needs to be 'updated' and 'upgraded' regularly by educators and da'ies. It is very important that the educators and da'ies pay attention to the individual's and the community's built-in system. They have to create awareness about contemporary challenges. They should plan future strategies to deal with such challenges.

This internal system is very important for Muslims today. They should know about it in order to activate it. Only through such proper reconstruction of the consciousness can we be certain about the validity and effectiveness of the internal controlling system. Muslims need to be aware of this fact and have to activate their system in order to be sensitive towards doubtful acts and sinful matters. Unless this system is 'upgraded', the person may not act in the right way. It is like 'installing' an 'anti-virus software' within ourselves. With such a 'software' in place, our internal system will prevent 'viruses', i.e. bad/evil acts, from entering our thoughts or hearts.



There are many issues today where people are in total doubt about whether something is allowed or not. In many areas such as insurance, food, medicine, trade, and technology, there are no definite answers - or the people themselves are not aware of the Islamic approach. This may lead to moral conflicts. Unfortunately, even some people who teach akhlaq and moral values are sometimes not even aware of these conflicts.

In this era we have several clashing values. Muslims should be exposed to the Islamic point of view of the issue in order to go for the right value. Works about such issues should be published and translated for all Muslims. Books and magazines should be available to all Muslims. If the existing works are very long, we need to summarize the findings and translate them into major Muslim and international languages. Exposing Muslims to such findings will minimize disputes among them regarding certain issues. They will at least know what to do and what not to do. This will lead to unity and remove anything that can lead to disputes.



Another thing is that educators and da'ies should not simply use the traditional approach. If we want to talk about sidq, tazkiyah, and tarbiyah, we should not limit ourselves to one scholar or website. We should compare knowledge and information between different scholars. For example, if we compare the works of Al-Shaikh Zarrouq and Imam Ghazali on tazkiyah, we will notice differences; the work of Al-Shaikh Zarrouq is totally different from Imam Ghazali's. His books of Qawaed Altasaruf and Udat Alboroud Alsadeq use totally different approaches from Imam Ghazali. Al-Shaikh Zarrouq addressed the people of his time. We can read these books and benefit from them but we should use a more suitable approach that is more convenient to the challenges of our time. This means that we should have different ways of presenting these issues about tazkiyah and tarbiyah. It is only by this way can we 'upgrade' our internal controlling system.

We should interpret the Qur'anic texts and hadiths in the light of what we have today. This cannot happen unless the internal system is 'upgraded'. Otherwise we may get lost. The system has two sides: positive and negative. We must use the positive side. We have to know how to be honest in this era. It is the responsibility of the educators and da'ies of today to 'upgrade' the internal controlling system of the Muslims in general and the young generation in particular.



We should also be aware of the recent advancements in technology. For example, nowadays there are filtering software that are developed by non-Muslims. We can download these software and have control over some of the negative elements that can reach us through the Internet. We should develop this type of software to suit our needs as Muslims. We have to maximize the positive side of information technology. We need to do this to enable Muslims to access the Internet and use their time in the right way.



One more area that we need to be aware of is that of intellectual slavery - that is when people try to benefit from technology through globalization. There are some people who want to influence others in order to affect the akhlaq and ideology. They use cognitive psychology and other branches of knowledge where they can manipulate the mind. They practice brainwashing and Muslims are not aware of this. This is a very great challenge to Muslims since this may lead us to question our beliefs and moral values. Educators need to address this crucial issue. They should do something to 'upgrade' the above mentioned internal controlling system in order to prevent ourselves from being brainwashed.

conclusion

Without a 'fully functioning' internal controlling system, people will have different attitudes which may lead to problems such as extremism. Extremists will increase in the Muslim community if issues like those mentioned above are not resolved. Muslims may end up with multiple personalities. They are Muslims but they commit haram (forbidden) and many other negative things. They are not aware that they are doing anything wrong and they start acting in strange ways. These people are victims of the new system of globalization. Our strategy to face such challenges is to 'activate' and 'upgrade' our internal system. Then Muslims can live their lives in tranquility and without confusion. Other solutions will merely be short term because there will be no tranquility.

 


 
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« Reply #49 on: January 23, 2011, 01:30:08 PM »

 بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

HADITH 28

 وَعَظَنَا رَسُولُ اللهِ صلی الله عليه و سلم مَوْعِظَةً وَجِلَتْ مِنْهَا الْقُلُوبُ، وَذَرَفَتْ مِنْهَا الْعُيُونُ، فَقُلْنَا: يَا رَسُولَ اللهِ كَأَنَّهَا مَوْعِظَةُ مُوَدِّعٍ، فَأَوْصِنَا، قَالَ: أُوصِيكُمْ بِتَقْوَى اللهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ، وَالسَّمْعِ وَالطَّاعَةِ وَإِنْ تَأَمَّرَ عَلَيْكُمْ عَبْدٌ، فَإِنَّهُ مَنْ يَعِشْ مِنْكُمْ فَسَيَرَى اخْتِلاَفاً كَثِيرًا، فَعَلَيْكُمْ بِسُنَّتِي وَسُنَّةِ الْخُلَفَاءِ الرَّاشِدِينَ الْمَهْدِيِّينَ، عَضُّوا عَلَيْهَا بِالنَّوَاجِذِ، وَإِيَّاكُمْ وَمُحْدَثَاتِ الأُمُورِ، فَإِنَّ كُلَّ بِدْعَةٍ ضَلاَلَةٌ

 رَوَاهُ أَبُو دَاوُدَ وَالتِّرْمِذِيُّ وَقَالَ: حَدِيثٌ حَسَنٌ صَحِيحٌ


It was narrated on the authority of Abu Najih al-Irbad bin Sariyah, radiyallahu 'anhu, who said:


The Messenger of Allah, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, delivered an admonition that made our hearts fearful and our eyes tearful. We said, "O Messenger of Allah, it is as if this were a farewell sermon, so advise us." He said, "I enjoin you to have Taqwa of Allah and that you listen and obey, even if a slave is made a ruler over you. He among you who lives long enough will see many differences. So for you is to observe my Sunnah and the Sunnah of the rightly-principled and rightly-guided successors, holding on to them with your molar teeth. Beware of newly-introduced matters, for every innovation (bid'ah) is an error."
[Abu Dawud & Al-Tirmidhi, who says it is an authentic hadith]

background

In one of the narrations of this hadith, it is mentioned that the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, gave this talk after the Fajr prayer. Based on other hadiths, it was the practice of the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, to give admonition to his companions from time to time, however, without burdening nor boring them. Ibn Rajab points out the characteristics of the Prophet's, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, speeches and admonitions: brief, concise, and conveyed in beautiful understandable manner.



The admonition consists of three main issues:


To have taqwa of Allah where it is Allah's Advice to all mankind.
To listen and obey the leaders for it will lead to better management of the affairs of the community, of peace and unity. However, the hadith lays a fact that rightly-guided leadership will be the first Islamic concept to be violated.
The hadith anticipates a historical fact: i.e. the Muslim disunity and split into groups and sects due to heresies. It indicates the main principle to be followed in such situations: adhering to the sunnah.
The emphasis, then, in the advice given in the hadith is to adhere to the sunnah and to avoid bid'ah (heresy).

lessons

Introductory statements about adhering to the sunnah

The Prophet's, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, actions may be classified as follows:


Those that are specific to the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, such as continuous fasting (wisal).
Actions that are related to the culture of his time, such as the turban, unbuttoning the top shirt button, keeping long hair, using a walking stick.
Actions resulting from spontaneous or haphazard actions. For example, the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, used to stop at particular places during a journey or take a certain route for a journey.
Actions that the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, performed intentionally for the purpose of ibadah.
Scholars state that Muslims are only obliged to follow the last type of action.
Note: An act is considered an ibadah if there are authentic hadiths mentioning that the act is an ibadah, or that it will be rewarded, or that the one who does it is praised, or that the one who does not perform it is blamed or cursed or will be punished.



Scholars stated that to consider an action as a sunnah, two conditions must be met. Not only are the outward actions of the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, to be imitated, but the intention of the act must be the same. For example, wearing a turban should not be done with the intention of performing an ibadah. If one has the intention of merely following the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, then one will rewarded for that intention only.



Imam Shatibi states the principle that if there are two ways to perform an ibadah, one being easier than the other, then it is obligatory to take the easier way. For example, if on a cold winter's night there is an option of using cold or hot water, then one takes the easy option, i.e. using the hot water. This principle is derived form the Qur'an, Surah al-Baqarah, Ayah 185.




Another principle that Imam Shatibi states is that when one does a preferable action or mustahab, one should not commit oneself to doing it in a set manner. For example, one should not say that he shall read two juzu' a day, or will fast every Monday and/or Thursday on a continuous basis without stopping from time to time.

The reasons one should not commit oneself to non-obligatory acts are because:


It is not made obligatory by shari'ah.
It goes against the general principles of the shari'ah (al-Baqarah: 185).
If one commits himself to do non-obligatory ibadah on a regular basis, it comes close to being a vow (nazr) which is not a preferable act (makruh).
If one makes a commitment and sticks to it, one might get fed up with the action later on and stop doing it altogether.
Therefore, it is better to do good deeds based on one's personal capacity, encouraging oneself to continue performing the deed.



Imam Shatibi has established that there are two types of bid'ah:


Genuine bid'ah - Any form of ibadah for which there is no evidence in the Qur'an nor from the sunnah.
'Relative' bid'ah. Any form of ibadah for which there is a general evidence from the Qur'an and/or sunnah but no explicit/specific evidence. An example is the du'a in congregation. There are general evidences for making du'a, but there is no explicit/specific evidence to perform it in congregation on a continuous basis.
Imam Ahmad Zarouq (899H) adds a third category which is: un-agreed upon heresy or bid'ah khilafiyyah. This is acceptable form of ibadah to some scholars and it is bid'ah according to other scholars such as the later given example.



General rules and principles to differentiate between bid'ah and sunnah
(extracted by Imam Shatibi)


An ibadah (ritual of worship) cannot be formulated unless there is evidence from wahy (revelation). Another way of saying this is that ibadah is restricted by the shari'ah. The evidence for this is the hadith of Aishah which states that the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, said, "Whoever performs an action that is not according to our way will be rejected." (al-Bukhari) [See Hadith 5]

If there is a beneficial act that existed during the time of the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, yet the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, did not perform it as a act of ibadah, then we cannot perform it as an act of ibadah.

An act of ibadah may be performed due to a number of reasons:

If an act is considered a need to motivate people because of their laxity and carelessness, then that act is a bid'ah and cannot be performed. For example, Abdul Malik bin Marwan gave the Eid khutbah before the prayer because people left after the prayers.

If the act is considered a need due to the natural circumstances of the people and there was no need during the time of the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, then it is considered as maslahah mursalah. For example, the compilation of the Qur'an, the use of the mihrab, the existing schooling system, the use of loudspeakers during the adhan, etc.

If the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, performed an act and then stopped due to a certain reason, we may perform that act provided the reason no longer exists. For example, the Tarawih prayers - the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, stopped performing them after a time because he was afraid that it would be made compulsory. After his death, there is no way that the Tarawih prayers will become compulsory as the time of wahy has passed.

Avoiding any act of worship that the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, did not perform is considered a sunnah (sunnah tarkiyyah).

Performing an act which has been made into an ibadah by:

Generalising evidences that relate to a specific ibadah. In other words, removing the limits of an act that has been limited by the shari'ah. An example is that there are certain adhkar whose number of repetitions have been limited by the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam - for example, the adhkar after prayers. To remove these limits, i.e. make more than the specified number of repetitions, is a bid'ah.

Specifying a general evidence to a particular act. In other words, limiting an act that is unlimited by the shari'ah. An example is to specifically fast on Friday and pray on Friday evening. Other examples are to call the adhan for the Eid prayer (by using the general hadith for the adhan) and performing a certain set of dhikr for a certain time/day. These acts are considered bid'ah.

Connecting an act of ibadah to an unrelated action (either a natural action or a act of ibadah) and making them appear as a continuous action, might be a bid'ah or lead to bid'ah, depending on the situation:

Intentionally. This is a bid'ah.
Unintentionally. If the connection is repeatedly made in public, then it could lead to a bid'ah (because people might think the actions were related).
An example is that at the time of Imam Malik, it was reported that the muadhin would purposely clear his throat before giving the adhan. When he was made to stop by Imam Malik, he would then purposely hit a stick against the side of the minaret before giving the adhan. Imam Malik stopped him from doing this as well, and said, "Do not do something which has not been practised by the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, nor by his companions."
Another example is to stand up immediately after performing the fardh prayers to perform the sunnah prayers where people without knowledge may get confused.
A third example is to start fasting the six days of Shawal from the second day of Eid.

Any non-obligatory action which is permitted by the shari'ah but by repeatedly performing in public makes it appear to be a fardh, then that action should be stopped occasionally. An example is the recitation of Surah as-Sajdah and Surah al-Insan in the Friday Fajr prayer. Another is that the Companions (Abu Bakr and Umar) occasionally did not perform udhiah.

Not everybody who commits a bid'ah will be considered a mubtadi' (the one who commits a heresy). Some of them will be excused. This principle also applies to one who commits acts of kufr (disbelief) i.e. not everyone who commits kufr is a kafir.

The excuses are:

Someone lives in a place where there is no scholar who can establish the evidence, remove misconceptions and offer guidance.
Someone who is a new Muslim. That person is excused until he knows about the issues involved.
If there are misconceptions related to the situation, that person is excused until these are removed.
The un-agreed upon acts.

It is important to differentiate between innovation that is kufr or leads to kufr, and one that isn't. Any innovation which is not kufr or does not lead to kufr is worse than a ma'siat (sin) but with regards to the Hereafter, it falls under the same category of ma'siat, i.e. the innovator may be punished or he may be forgiven and not punished.

[Note: according to Ibn Taimiyyah, there are 10 reasons why one isn't punished, among which are:
One's rewards outweigh his sins.
Trials and hardship undergone in this world.
Intercession of the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam.
Intercession of a good Muslim.
Punishment in the grave.]

There are two opinions about one who commits a bid'ah:
Only the action committed with the bid'ah will not be accepted.
All deeds will not be accepted from that person, provided the person is not excused or has not repented.
Clarification of the second opinion:

Imam Shatibi argues that you will not find someone committing an innovation in only one action, i.e. if one commits a bid'ah in the prayers, it is most likely that he will be committing bid'ah in zakat, hajj, etc.
Imam Shatibi states that this opinion may be interpreted in three ways:
The statement is taken at face value, i.e. all deeds, obligatory (fard) or recommended (sunnah), will not be accepted.
That the bid'ah is a basic belief that can negate all of a person's actions. For example, the Rafidah's bid'ah of rejecting the Companions' results in not accepting the hadith and claiming that the Qur'an is incomplete.
The manifestation of an innovation is a sign of a person not having a sound grounding in the shari'ah, not 'respecting' the shari'ah or placing the intellect ahead of the shari'ah.

Based on Hadith 5 of Imam al-Nawawi's collection it seems that the first opinion is sounder in the case of those who follow the sunnah in general.

conclusion

In order to adhere to the sunnah and to be able to refrain from heresy (bid'ah), a Muslim needs to fully understand and apply these principles pinpointed by our great scholars. Doing so can also minimize disputes and quarrels among Muslim community members over many debatable issues every now and then.

 



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« Reply #50 on: January 24, 2011, 04:35:00 AM »

 بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

HADITH 29

 يَا رَسُلَ اللهِ أَخْبِرْنِي بِعَمَلٍ يُدْخِلُنِي الْجَنَّةَ، وَيُبَاعِدُنِي عَنِ النَّارِ، قَالَ: لَقَدْ سَأَلْتَ عَنْ عَظِيمٍ، وَإِنَّهُ لَيَسِيرٌ عَلَى مَنْ يَسَّرَهُ اللهُ تَعَالَى عَلَيْهِ: تَعْبُدُ اللهَ لاَ تُشْرِكُ بِهِ شَيْئًا، وَتُقِيمُ الصَّلاَةَ، وَتُؤْتِي الزَّكَاةَ، وَتَصُومُ رَمَضَانَ، وَتَحُجُّ الْبَيْتَ. ثُمَّ قَالَ: أَلاَ أَدُلُّكَ عَلَى أَبْوَابِ الْخَيرِ: الصَّوْمُ جُنَّةٌ، وَالصَّدَقَةُ تُطْفِىءُ الْخَطِيئَةَ كَمَا يُطْفِىءُ الْمَاءُ النَّارَ، وَصَلاَةُ الرَّجُلِ فِي جَوْفِ اللَّيْلِ، ثُمَّ تَلاَ

  تَتَجَافَى جُنُوبُهُمْ عَنِ الْمَضَاجِعِ يَدْعُونَ رَبَّهُمْ خَوْفًا وَطَمَعًا وَمِمَّا رَزَقْنَاهُمْ يُنفِقُونَ

فَلَا تَعْلَمُ نَفْسٌ مَّا أُخْفِيَ لَهُم مِّن قُرَّةِ أَعْيُنٍ جَزَاء بِمَا كَانُوا يَعْمَلُونَ

. ثُمَّ قَالَ: أَلاَ أُخْبِرُكَ بِرَأْسِ الأَمْرِ وَعَمُودِهِ وَذِرْوَةِ سَنَامِهِ؟ قُلْتُ: بَلَى يَا رَسُولُ اللهِ. قَالَ: رَأْسُ الأَمْرِ الإِسْلاَمُ، وَعَمُودُهُ الصَّلاَةُ، وَذِرْوَةُ سَنَاِمِه الْجِهَادُ. ثُمَّ قَالَ: أَلاَ أُخْبِرُكَ بِمَلاَكِ ذلِكَ كُلِّهِ؟. فَقُلْتُ: بَلَى يَا رَسُولَ اللهِ، فَأَخَذَ بِلِسَانِهِ وَقَالَ: كُفَّ عَلَيْكَ هذَا. قُلْتُ: يَا نَبِيَّ اللهِ، وَإِنَّا لَمُؤَاخَذُونَ بِمَا نَتَكَلَّمُ بِهِ؟ فَقَالَ: ثَقِلَتْكَ أُمُّك، وَهَلْ يَكُبُّ النَّاسَ فِي النَّارِ عَلَى وُجُوهِهِمْ ـ أَوْ قَالَ: عَلَى مَنَاخِرِهِمْ ـ إِلاَّ حَصَائِدُ أَلْسِنَتِهِمْ؟

 رَوَاهُ التِّرْمِذِيُّ وَقَالَ: حَدِيثٌ حَسَنٌ صَحِيحٌ

From Mu'adh bin Jabal, radiyallahu 'anhu, who said: I said:
"O Messenger of Allah, tell me of a deed which will take me into Paradise and will keep me away from the Hell-fire." He said: "You have asked me about a great matter, yet it is, indeed, an easy matter for him to whom Allah Almighty makes it easy. (It is ) that you worship Allah without associating anything with Him, that you perform the prayers, that you pay the zakat, that you fast during Ramadan, and that you make the pilgrimage to the House."
Then he said: "Shall I not guide you to the gates of goodness? Fasting is a shield; charity extinguishes sin as water extinguishes fire; and a man's prayer in the middle of the night." Then he recited: "Who forsake their beds to cry unto their Lord in fear and hope, and spend of that We have bestowed on them. No soul knoweth what is kept hid for them of joy, as a reward for what they used to do". [Qu'ran, Surah al-Sajdah (32): Ayah 16-17]
Then he said: "Shall I not also tell you of the peak of the matter, its pillar, and its topmost part?" I said: "Yes, O Messenger of Allah." He said: "The peak of the matter is Islam (submission to Allah), the pillar is prayer; and its topmost part is jihad."

Then he said: "And shall I not tell you of the controlling of all that ?" I said:" Yes, O Messenger of Allah". So he took hold of his tongue and said: "Restrain this." I said: "O Prophet of Allah, will we be held accountable for what we say?" He said: "May your mother be bereft of you! Is there anything that topples people on their faces (or he said, on their noses) into the Hell-fire other than the jests of their tongues?"
[Related by Al-Tirmidhi, who said it was a fine and sound hadith]
________________________________________

background
Many other companions have asked similar questions like the ones in this hadith. In general, the Prophet Muhammad, sallallahu alayhi wasallam, gave the same answers. Ibn Rajab highlights another narration of the hadith recorded by Imam Ahmad which states that Mu'adh came to the Prophet, sallallahu alayhi wasallam, and said: "O Messenger of Allah, I want to ask you about a matter that has made me ill and burning from inside." The Prophet, sallallahu alayhi wasallam, said: "Ask whatever you wish." He said: "Inform me about a deed which will make me enter Paradise."
This shows, as Ibn Rajab continues to say, Mu'adh's eagerness to know about good deeds.
________________________________________

lessons
This hadith is evidence that doing good deeds facilitates and leads to entering Paradise as it has been mentioned in the Qur'an: "This is the Paradise that you have made to inherit because of your good deeds which you used to do" (Surah al-Zuhkruf: Ayah 72). However, a person's good deeds are part of Allah's mercy and grace. Allah says: "But Allah who caused faith to be dear to you and have given it beauty in your heart, and has made hateful to you denial of the truth and all inequity and all rebellion against what is good" (Surah al-Hujarat (49): Ayah 7). So the meaning of this verse has been emphasized by this hadith. The performing of good deeds is a cause of entering paradise but they are themselves a gift from Allah.
There are debates among some scholars about the actions and whether we deserve to enter Paradise because of these actions. They raise the questions: Is it like a contract? Is it a deal? Or is this actually just a cause but entering Paradise is Allah's Mercy? If we just look at the matter as a deal or a contract, we would not be able to pay for even one of Allah's mercies.
 
The deeds that have been mentioned in this hadith have been emphasized in previous hadiths collected by Imam An-Nawawi, mainly Hadith 2, 3, 15 and 23. However, there are two additional good deeds mentioned in this hadith:
1.   A man's prayer in the middle of the night. This includes, according to Ibn Rajab, three types of people:
a.   Those who wake up during the night for dhikr, du'a, or praying tahajud.
b.   Those who wait for the Isha' prayer and do not go to sleep until they perform Isha'.
c.   Those who wake up for the Fajr prayer.

All these three groups have been mentioned in the Qur'an. People who stay awake throughout the night (busy in entertaining themselves) miss these blessed deeds. The three types of people are guaranteed and promised with the blessing from Allah in the Hereafter where there are unpredictable and unimaginable rewards.
2.   Jihad where and when it becomes an obligation (this deed is not stated clearly in other hadiths). It is a great blessing that gets Muslims closer to Allah. Scholars say that jihad is the greatest act of worship and the most important deed after the obligatory acts. Through jihad, Islam is protected and preserved and became dominant, where other nations lived under its rule peacefully with their rights maintained.
 
In Hadith 15, the Prophet, sallallahu alayhi wasallam, quoted the importance of saying good things or keeping silent. In this hadith the Prophet, sallallahu alayhi wasallam, says it is because of the tongue saying bad things that people are thrown into the Hell-fire. Ibn Rajab states that this indicates that restraining and controlling our speech is the crucial matter of all good things. The one who controls his tongue controls all his affairs.
In this hadith, we see the emphasis is on the negative side of the tongue, whereas in the previous hadiths, the emphasis is on the positive side of the tongue. This means that the tongue can be used in two ways: to say good things or to say bad things. Most people have the tendency to be lenient about this issue. Though Muslims know that saying bad things is prohibited, they still do so, saying things that displease Allah such as backbiting, slandering and spreading rumours. We will be held accountable for what we say. We will be rewarded for saying good things and we may be punished for saying bad things. Being cynical to others and saying things just for fun is something that a person is going to be accountable for. Even if a Muslim says things in the form of a cynical du'a (e.g. "May Allah guide him") or a joke to make fun of other Muslims and put him down, he will be held against this action. Even using gestures or attributes in a cynical way that can be interpreted that he is belittling a Muslim is considered a sinful act that displeases Allah.
The Muslim should have control over his tongue; otherwise his tongue can create a lot of problems for the community. In the fitnah (troubles) during Caliphate Othman, radiyallahu 'anhu, the Companions said they were considering saying bad things in that critical situation as a way of helping those who killed him. Consequently, the Muslim is always a good person who says only good things and for the benefit of his community. He should not say anything that may lead to any disputes among the Muslim community.
Another thing that is related to this and is mentioned by the scholars is the story of a man (from an Israel tribe) that the Prophet, sallallahu alayhi wasallam, narrated: "There were two relatives or brothers. One of them was pious and righteous and the other one used to commit sins. The pious person always tried to remind the sinful one, but he did not do so in the appropriate way of making da'wa. One day while he was passing by the sinner he said: 'I swear by Allah that He will not forgive you!' Upon this Allah said: 'Who is putting himself higher than My Authority?!" So Allah forgave the sinner and held the pious one accountable for what he said even though he was righteous."
This teaches us that we have to watch what we say especially when we are angry. That's why the Prophet, sallallahu alayhi wasallam, made the du'a : "I ask Allah to enable me to say the truth whether I am angry or pleased." Controlling ourselves needs training and effort. That's why we need al-tarbiyyah and al-tazkiyyah. This will be difficult in the beginning. But when we show Allah that we are serious, Allah will give us help and al-tawfiq (guidance) to the right path. Muslims need to make sincere efforts to reach a high degree of tarbiyyah and tazkiyyah. This will be part of their akhlaq. Muslims need ilm (knowledge) because if they are not aware of this, they may misinterpret things and get into sinful acts. Ibn Rajab says if the Muslim can control his tongue, he can control his other affairs. That is the wisdom that Muslims can get from this hadith.
 
Regarding the methodology of teaching and learning, this hadith sets forth a good example for Muslims to learn from. Mu'adh starts by asking a question, saying that he wants to ask about a matter that has him 'burning inside'. As a result of his question, he gets the reply. The Prophet, sallallahu alayhi wasallam, said: "Ask whatever you wish." He was open to any kind of questions. If someone has an inquiry regarding any matter, he should ask, and the person who has been consulted has to be open-hearted. The Prophet, sallallahu alayhi wasallam, later on in this hadith, guides Mu'adh in the form of questions: "Shall I not tell you...?" Asking questions from both sides (from Mu'adh, as a means to learn, and from the Prophet, sallallahu alayhi wasallam, as a means to teach) is one of the effective ways in the methodology of teaching and learning. If we want to learn we have to ask questions. If we want to teach, we have to communicate in this style and also ask questions. Asking questions will attract the attention of the listeners and will make them think about what is being said.
________________________________________

conclusion
The central idea in Islam is tawhid and taqwa (submission to Allah). All other deeds can be looked at as part of taqwa and tawhid. Without proper tawhid there would be no fear of Allah. If we fear Allah, and love Him the most, this should lead us to be closer to Him. Otherwise, our claim is not valid or incomplete. Our taqwa and fear should be up to the level. So tawhid is the essence of the message of Allah. He sent the Prophet, sallallahu alayhi wasallam, with this message and made him an example for us to emulate and follow. Consequently, tawhid (almutab'a) by following the Prophet, sallallahu alayhi wasallam, is part of submission to Allah.
 

« Last Edit: January 24, 2011, 05:34:58 AM by mabdullah » Logged
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« Reply #51 on: January 24, 2011, 04:36:36 AM »

بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

HADITH 30


 إِنَّ اللهَ تَعَالَى فَرَضَ فَرَائِضَ فَلاَ تُضَيِّعُوهَا، وَحَدَّ حُدُوداً فَلاَ تَعْتَدُوهَا، وَحَرَّمَ أَشْيَاءَ فَلاَ تَنْتَهِكُوهَا، وَسَكَتَ عَنْ أَشْيَاءَ رَحْمَةً لَكُمْ غَيْرَ نِسْيَانٍ فَلاَ تَبْحَثُوا عَنْهَا

 حَدِيثٌ حَسَنٌ رَوَاهُ الدَّارَقُطْنِي وَغَيْرُهُ


It was narrated on the authority of Abi Tha'labah Al-Khushani Jurthum bin Nashir, radiyallahu 'anhu, that the Messenger of Allah, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, said:
"Verily Allah the Almighty has prescribed the obligatory deeds, so do not neglect them; He has set certain limits, so do not go beyond them; He has forbidden certain things, so do not indulge in them; and He has said nothing about certain things, as an act of mercy to you, not out of forgetfulness, so do not go enquiring into these."
[Related by Al-Daraqutni and others - Al-Nawawi said this is a hasan (fine) hadith]
________________________________________

background
This hadith has been recorded by a number of scholars. They all recorded this hadith through the chain of Dawood Ibn Abi Hind on the authority of Makhool from Abi Tha'labah Al-Khushani. This hadith is regarded as a weak hadith by many scholars such as Al-Bukhari, Ahmad and Hatem. They point out that there are three defects in this hadith:
1.   Makhool did not hear the hadith from Abi Tha'labah.
2.   Even if it is assumed that he did hear from Abi Tha'labah, Makhool was classified among the third category of those who commit tadlis (tadlis is when a person narrates a hadith upon one of his teachers but he did not hear the particular hadith he is narrating directly from his teacher but from an intermediate source). For this hadith, there should be a direct term that reflects sama', that is this person heard the hadith directly from his teacher or sheikh. Otherwise, if he uses on the authority of, this cannot be accepted.
3.   It is debatable whether this is actually a hadith or a saying of one of the Companions (sahabi). (Is it marfou' or mawqouf?)
Despite these three defects, the hadith has been accepted. Moreover, what has been mentioned in this hadith has been used by all jurists or fuqaha' as a way of categorizing rulings of shari'ah. It is from this hadith that the rules of the five well-known categorizations are derived: The obligatory (wajib), preferable (mandoub), forbidden (muharam), hateful (makrouh), and the permissible (mubah). Not only is the meaning acceptable, this hadith is also used for categorizing rulings of shari'ah (ahkam).
________________________________________

lessons
The meaning of the statement which says: "He (Allah the Almighty) has set certain limits, so do not go beyond them." has been emphasised in the Qur'an. Allah says:
These are the bounds, the limits set by Allah. Do not then transgress them for who transgress them are evil doers. [Surah Al-Baqarah (2): Ayah 229],
and in Surah Al-Talq, Ayah 1, Allah says:
And those are the set limits of Allah and whosoever transgresses the set limits of Allah then he indeed has wronged himself.
By looking closer into the content of these verses, we find that the two verses are talking about the limits (hudud) that Allah set regarding family relationships, especially the relationship between husband and wife. The limits that govern the relationship between husband and wife are stated in two verses in two surahs. Moreover, in Surah Al-Nisa', Ayah 13 and 14, Allah talks about the regulations of inheritance (furud almirath). Favouring one person over another and giving a person more than he deserves is considered transgression in Islam. And if we lessen or decrease the right of another person, this is also considered transgression. We have to stick to what Allah has set for us regarding what a person should receive.
Usually in family relationships, if there is no adherence to the Islamic bounds and guidelines, the consequences will inevitably be negative as we see in real life and in the Muslim world today. If we go to the courts we will see many cases where transgression has taken place. If the family life is not carried out in accordance with shari'ah, we will end up with many people transgressing the set limits. For example, the way divorce takes place violates the concept of family relationship where the spouses are not aware of what they say. They are not in control of their tempers. They end up saying things they do not mean (e.g. performing talaq out of anger) - things which might get them in a situation where they would need to go and consult the court or scholars regarding what to do. They start to look for a way to resolve the problem only when they are stuck and the situation deteriorates. Had they controlled their tempers and their tongues in the first place, they would not have reached this situation. It is only because they have violated the prescribed limits. (In the example of a husband having used words or terms which later on even he himself is not sure whether he has declared divorce or not, some scholars will refer it to the intention when the action took place.)
 
Another area in this regard is the area of the procedure of divorce itself that has been set by Allah. There are certain rulings that have to be observed by both parties, especially the husband. There are ways of minimizing the case of divorce. It has to occur in a totally controlled situation and in a way where there is an opportunity of getting back when it is carried out in the right way. There are adab (manners) that have to be followed if divorce has to take place. Most of the time divorce takes place when everybody lose control of their tempers, feelings or emotions. In Islam, if Muslims have to divorce, they are required to be fully aware of the situation and consequences, and that they have thought deeply about it and not simply divorce as a result of anger or a hasty decision.
Islam creates the procedure that if a person is actually considering divorce, he must be fully aware of what he is doing and his actions are based on sound reasons. This also means that both sides have given the act of divorce deep thought and they could not find any other solution to their dispute. The act of divorce should not lead to transgression - the wife and children should not be victims. To make sure of this, we should stick to the limits set by Allah. People have to be aware of this. They have to respect the family relationship. There should be strong commitment where both sides stick to what this commitment implies. This is so because Islam encourages the continuity of relationships. So here we have two considerations: (1) the respect of commitment, and (2) the continuity of that commitment.
 
Islam, as a practical religion, wants things to happen even if we dislike them. This is actually mentioned about the relationship between husband and wife. The hadith explains what the verse in the Qur'an says, that the believer should not hate another believer (wife). If he dislikes an aspect of her character or personality, he should appreciate other aspects of her character as well and vice versa. This is because there is no perfect person except Prophet Muhammad, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam. Consequently, Islam encourages us to appreciate other people's characters.
 
Islam also asks us to be moderate in our life when it comes to dealing with people. So spouses should deal with each other in a moderate way. A hadith says: "When you like someone, you should like him moderately because he might become someone whom you dislike one day, and when you dislike someone dislike him moderately because he might become someone you like one day."
 
This hadith implies that we should be moderate in our actions and sayings and not to exceed the limits. Unfortunately today, this idea has been violated by the media through movies, songs, etc. where love is taken as the central issue in our daily lives. We rarely or never see any exception where love is moderate and in accordance with the Islamic guidelines. This explains why we have 'hopeless' people. Because they have lost their lovers (and most importantly because they have exceeded the limits set by Allah) their lives become miserable and meaningless. This is because of the effect of the culture and the environment which they are exposed to. So by exceeding the limits set by Allah, more problems and disasters occur.
 
Another area where people usually go beyond the limits is the area of fara'ed (inheritance). The limits and guidelines that have been set by Allah have been violated. Allah, in the Qur'an, and the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, via revelation, have prescribed and made clear for us the limits. For example, in the case of death, it is made clear to us who should inherit and what is the allowance of each son or daughter. As a result we will have those who have priority and those who have less but still have their share. And we also have those who are even set aside because there is someone closer to inherit. They are considered mahjoub.
Nowadays we see people violate these limits all over the Muslim world. Most of the cases happen because of the transgression and domination of the relatives. Muslims all over the world have to observe the limits. Otherwise they will transgress and violate the guidelines set by Allah. They have to make sure that this is not halal and will not please Allah. They may enjoy it for months or years, but at the end they may suffer the severe punishment of Allah in the Hereafter. We hear different stories of people who transgress and victimize their relatives. A verse in the Qur'an says: Those people are considered transgressors and being unjust where Allah has forbidden injustice (zulm). These people will be totally responsible for what they have done. This is one statement that is mentioned in this hadith and has been emphasized by the Qur'an.
________________________________________

conclusion
All the meanings that are mentioned in this hadith are sound and acceptable even if the hadith itself - due to chain defect in the way it is narrated - is considered weak. A Maliki jurist Ibn Al'arabi said: "This hadith is one of the most important rulings in Islam and should be known to every Muslim."



« Last Edit: January 24, 2011, 05:36:36 AM by mabdullah » Logged
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« Reply #52 on: January 24, 2011, 05:42:04 AM »

 بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

HADITH 31

عَنْ أَبِي الْعَبَّاسِ سَهْلِ بْنِ سَعْدٍ السَّاعِدِيِّ رَضِيَ اللهُ عَنْهُ قَالَ:

 ِِجَاءَ رَجُلٌ الَى النَّبِيِّ صَلَی اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَ سَلَمَ فََقََالََ: يَا رَسولَ الله دُلَّنِي عَلَى عَمَلٍ إِذَا عَمِلْتُهُ اَحَبَنِيَ اللهُ وَ اَحَبَنِيَ النَّاسُ  فَقَالَ: ازْهَدْ فِي الدُّنْيَا يُحِبَّكَ اللهُ وَ ازْهَدْ فِي مَا عِنْدَ النَّاسِِِ يُحِبَّكَ النَّاسُ

 حَدِيثٌ حَسَنٌ رَوَاهُ ابْنُ مَاجَه وَ غَيْرُهُ بِأَسَانِيدَ حَسَنَةٍ

On the authority of Abu al-'Abbas Sahl bin Sa'd al-Sa'idi, radiyallahu 'anhu, who said:


A man came to the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, and said: "O Messenger of Allah, direct me to an act which if I do it, [will cause] Allah to love me and people to love me." He, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, answered: "Be indifferent to the world and Allah will love you; be indifferent to what people possess and they will love you."
[A fine hadith related by Ibn Majah and others with good chains of authorities]

background

This hadith is a weak hadith as pointed out by many scholars. Ibn Rajab gave a detailed argument about the weakness of this hadith. However, later scholars still recorded their commentaries on the text of the hadith for several reasons. The major two reasons are:


Sometimes the chain of the narrators (sanad) is not strong and the hadith consequently is not an authentic hadith. But the meaning of the text of the hadith is correct and acceptable. In this case the scholars still give their comments on the hadith.

The hadith is related to one of the major concepts in Islam which is al-zuhd. Unfortunately, many Muslims misunderstand and misinterpret this concept due to the influence of other cultures. We need to remove this misunderstanding or misinterpretation which is linked to this concept.
 

Ibn Rajab says that this hadith contains some great advice:


Prophet Muhammad, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, said the renouncing of this world will lead to the love of Allah. In other words, the one who practices this zuhd will be loved by Allah.

To renounce what people possess and that will cause the love of people to the person who practices zuhd. Al-zuhd has been emphasized in the Qur'an and hadiths especially zuhd in this world. In Surah al-Nisa' Ayah 77, Allah says:
Brief is the enjoyment of this world whereas the life to come is best for all who are muttaqun or conscious of Allah.
In Surah al-Ra'd Ayah 20, Allah says:

The life of this world is nothing but a flitting pleasure.
In Surat al-A'la Ayah 16-17, Allah says:

But may you prefer the life of this world although the life to come is better and more enduring.
In Sahih Muslim, on the authority of Jaber Ibn 'Abdullah, radiyallahu 'anhu, that the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, one day was passing through the market and he passed by a dead goat, which had its ears cut. He held the goat by the ear and asked who would like to have it for one derham (which was a very low price of currency at that time). The people said they wouldn't take it even if it was free. What could they do with it? He, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, asked if they liked it if it was theirs. They said even if it was alive they would still not buy it because of its cut ears. So how could they buy it now especialy since it was dead. The Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, said: "This worldly life is so little in the sight of Allah as this dead animal or goat is so little in your sight".

There are many other hadiths where the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, commanded Muslims to avoid asking others for anything, especially money, and to do the best not to indulge in the act of asking others.
lessons

One of the early scholars, Abu Muslim Al-Hawlani, says zuhd in this world does not mean forbidding what is permissible or wasting wealth. Zuhd with respect to this world is only where a person puts more trust in Allah, more than what was is in his own hands. If he was afflicted with calamity by losing something of this world, he is more hopeful for its reward and what is in store for him in the Hereafter than if it were to have remained with him.

Based on this, Ibn Rajab states that zuhd can be interpreted as three actions of the heart:


The Muslim should realize that all provisions come from Allah and not simply the result of his own acts. He should trust Allah and what Allah has more than what he has in his hands.

If he loses anything in this world, this should not bother him because he is looking for its reward.

The Muslim should not care whether he is going to be blamed or praised by others. He will not look for praise. In his heart, he is not touched by such praise. And if he is blamed, he will not be offended by being blamed. If the accusation is not true, he has nothing to worry about; if it is true then he has to face it and try to be a better Muslim.
 

We can also try to see and compare what was narrated by Al-Imam Abu Muslim Al-Hawlani and what has been narrated by other scholars. Al-Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal was asked one day if someone owns one thousand dinar, can he still be a zahid? He replied yes, he can be still a zahid if he does not feel rejoice if the money increases and he does not become sad if it decreases. We must not become slaves to money or our worldly possessions. We can be wealthy and zahid if we are still thankful to Allah and use wealth in the right way (provided also that we obtained this wealth in the right way). This meaning has been emphasised by Sufian Ibn 'Uyainah, one of the great scholars, when he was asked who is to be considered as zahid. He said whoever Allah bestowed a bounty on him then he is thankful and then when he is under trial, he is patient.



Sufian Al-Thawri - another scholar - said: Al-zuhd in this world is that you are ready in your heart and think of the Hereafter - you think of death. We should be prepared for the next world. This is a definition of zuhd. Zuhd means a status of the heart where a person fears he will not live a long life. This will motivate every one to be a good Muslim. If we have this feeling that we are going to leave this world at any time, this will lead us to be closer to Allah and fulfill our obligations and also to get away from disobedience.

This is why some scholars point out that there are different types of zuhd:


Al-zuhd in disobedience and sin
Not to be misled by our desires.
Not to exceed the limits of the permissible or the allowable acts (mubah). For example, we should not exceed the limits of sleeping (i.e. sleeping unnecessarily long hours) or eating (i.e. eating too much) which is permissible.
 

Ibn Rajab said the one who is hopeless of living a long life, then he is looking forward to meeting Allah and he is eager for the Hereafter - this is the maximum level of zuhd. Ibn Rajab then says that looking at this worldly life as blameworthy is not because of the day or night, which are signs of Allah, and not the place and not what He planted in the land, or the animals He created. All of these are bounties from Allah and beneficial to us. The blameworthy is actually with regards to the actions of the people in this life because most of these actions are not done in accordance to the guidance of revelation in a way that will lead to good consequences. Usually the consequences will be bad ones. People will not be able to do good things.

What should be done then is to be like the righteous and good people who used their lives as a means of getting them to the final destination. They were satisfied and contented by whatever they got. Even permissible acts and desires are treated in the same way. Sleeping and eating are good for us because this will help us to perform our obligations. That is why Ibn Rajab says all the early scholars looked for these permissible actions as means of fulfilling their obligations. He quoted al-Hasan al-Basri who said: Doing whatever is beneficial for you is not considered as the love of this world. So we should not belittle some professions and consider them as part of worldly life.

Some Muslims misunderstand zuhd. This will lead the Muslim community to become backward. Since we are entrusted for the establishment of Islamic civilization, this requires that we have professionals, and different fields of specializations. All these take effort and time. But what we do here is for the betterment of the community where there is a great need for professional people. If we do it with good intentions and for the sake of Allah we will be rewarded - this is the real zuhd.



Zuhd does not mean that we stay in one place and worship Allah. Worshiping Allah is a broad concept. The betterment of the community is considered as a form of worship. So asceticism or zuhd does not clash with any of the worldly affairs that the community needs. The zuhd here becomes that we do it in the right way, with a good intention and for the sake of Allah. This should not keep us from fulfilling the obligations towards Allah.

Ibn Rajab mentions that the worldly life is cursed because it keeps people away from Allah. They will be deprived from fulfilling the obligations. This life is a test for us, as stated in Surah al-Kahf Ayah 7. We either use it in the right way and be rewarded or we use it in the wrong way which will cause us to fail the test - we will go astray and indulge in disobedience.

conclusion

One thing that brings us closer to Allah and to be loved by Him is al-zuhd. There are other actions that make Allah love us:


To love Allah much. If we love Allah, He will love us.
The love of meeting Allah (as stated in another hadith).
The love of the Prophet, sallallah 'alayhi wasallam, more than we love ourselves and our family and to love his sunnah and to follow his model.
Remembrance of Allah, and all forms of dzikr.
To practice the preferable good deeds.
If we claim that we love Allah, we should test ourselves by taking the above points as criteria. By loving Allah, we will be successful in this life and the Hereafter.

 
« Last Edit: January 24, 2011, 05:47:16 AM by mabdullah » Logged
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« Reply #53 on: January 24, 2011, 05:44:15 AM »

 بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

HADITH 32

 لاَ ضَرَرَ وَلاَ ضِرَارَ

 حَدِيثٌ حَسَنٌ، رَوَاهُ ابْنُ مَاجَه وَالدَّارَقُطْنِيُّ وَغَيْرَهُمَا مُسْنَداً، وَرَوَاهُ مَالَكٌ فِي الْمُوَطَّأ مُرْسَلاً عَنْ عَمْرِو بْنِ يَحْيَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صلی الله عليه و سلم ، فَأَسْقَطَ أَبَا سَعِيدٍ، وَلَهُ طُرُقٌ يُقَوِّي بَعْضُهَا بَعْضً


It was related on the authority of Abu Sa'id Sa'd bin Malik bin Sinan al-Khudri, radiyallahu 'anhu, that the Messenger of Allah, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, said:


"There should be neither harming nor reciprocating harm."

[A excellent hadith which Ibn Majah, Al-Daraqutni and others related as of sound isnad, but which Malik related in his Muwatta' as of broken isnad, from 'Amr bin Yahya, from his father, from the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, but dropping (the name of) Abu Sa'id. This hadith has lines of transmission which strengthen one another (so that it may be regarded as of sound isnad).]

background

There are other interpretations of the text. One of them is: "No harm and no harming". Another interpretation is given by Ustaz Jamaludin Zarabozo: "There is not to be any causing of harm; nor is there to be any requital of harm".

There is another version on the hadith in which the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, says: "No harm or harming in Islam". There is the additional phrase "in Islam". In a third version, the hadith states: "It is cursed whoever harms a mu'min (believer)."

lessons

Imam Abu Dawud stated that this hadith is one of the hadiths around which all of fiqh revolves. Furthermore, this hadith leads to the birth of new branches in fiqh, mainly fiqh maxims (qaw'ed fiqhiyyah) and rules. The text of this hadith becomes one of the most important maxims. Later on other maxims were derived from the text of this hadith. Some of them are as follows:


Harm is to be prevented from appearing as much as possible.
Harm is to be eradicated.
Harm is not to be removed by a similar harm.
A greater harm can be removed by a lesser harm.
Based on maxim number 4, it was realised that if someone has no other options, he should take the lesser of the two harms. Another situation is that if there is a conflict between two harms, precedence is given to avoiding the greater harm.
The presence of a particular harm is accepted towards a general harm.
Preventing harm takes precedence over gaining or attaining benefits.
If there is a conflict between factors permitting something and others prohibiting something, the prohibition takes precedence; that is, it is going to be given the priority.
Something harmful is not given precedence just because it was pre-existing. In other words, the pre-existence of something does not allow it to continue to exist and be the cause of harm.
There is a real story related to maxim number 8. This story took place in Al-Andalus (Muslim Spain) where the people built a mosque. After several years or decades, many houses had been built around the mosque and at that time when the mu'zin wanted to make the call for prayer (Adhan), he used to climb up to the minaret. The fuqaha (jurists) ruled that the mu'zin should stop going up to the minaret in order not to cause any harm (from the minaret, one was able to see into other people's homes and thus invade their privacy).

Another maxim is if there is a conflict between individual harm and public harm, the prohibition of public harm will take precedence. The above are some of the maxims that are derived from the text of this present hadith.



When scholars talk about doing things right from the first time either based on experience or anticipation that certain things will cause harm, they urge people to take precautions to prevent any kind of harm. There are books written by Imam Muslim on this issue. When we look at these maxims, we see that they are very great where we have to anticipate the harm and not to allow it to take place. If it takes place, efforts should be done in order to bring it to an end or to remove it. If it cannot be removed, we should try our best to minimize the harm.

Based on the situation, if there is a conflict between a major harm and a minor harm, then the major harm should be avoided. This means that Muslims have to tolerate the minor harms for the sake of avoiding the major ones. In another situation, if we want to bring an end to a certain harm and if the result would be by bringing a similar or greater harm, then there is no need to remove it in this way. We should not remove harm by bringing a similar degree of harm. In this way the removal of harm would be useless. A greater consideration should be given to this point as this is related to ma'ruf (asking people to do good things) and munkar (asking people not to do harmful things). If the munkar (harm) is to be removed by creating a greater harm, this contradicts the objectives of the shari'ah. The objectives of the shari'ah are to prevent harm (if not, to minimize it) and to promote goodness and maximize it.



Regarding the interpretation of the text, Imam Ibn Rajab points out that what is stated in the hadith (i.e. the usage of the word "harm") is not a matter of emphasis. It is more sound because the two statements have different meanings.

Ibn Rajab and other scholars have given two interpretations of "harm/harming":


The first part of the hadith is the noun "no harm" and then the second part is the verb "harming". Harm is not allowed in shari'ah and causing harm without valid reasons is rejected and not accepted.

The second interpretation says that the first part of hadith (harm) means that the person causes harm to someone else by doing something which is beneficial to the doer. This kind of act is not allowed in Islam. The second part of hadith (harming) means that the person causes harm to someone else which is not even beneficial for him.

For example, suppose a person builds another floor (story) on top of his house and this results in his house being higher than his neighbours. This is beneficial to him but it causes harm to his neighbours as it invades their privacy. Ibn Rajab also says that the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, rejected causing harm if there is no valid reason. However, in the punishment of a criminal, there would be harm but the reason is valid. The aim here is to bring justice. In bringing justice, if there is any harm to an unjust person or criminal, then this harm is legal and allowed.
 

Causing harm without a valid or good reason


Ibn Rajab says the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, said that if the main objective is to actually cause the harm, then this is totally prohibited. There are many types of harms that are mentioned in the Qur'an:

Wasiyyah (will) - if a person has some money and he wants to give it to someone who is no related to him. He is allowed but he must not exceed the limits (one third). If he exceeds the limits, he will cause harm to the immediate inheritors. Another situation is to give someone more than he deserves, as stated in the Qur'an. To favour any one of the inheritors is harm. Ibn Abbas considers this as a major sin. Some Muslims practice this because of ignorance or self-interest. [See Surah An-Nisa' : Ayah 12]

Marriage and relationship between husband and wife. In al-raj'ah (returning), as stated in Surah Al-Baqarah Ayah 231 - someone divorces his wife and then he reconciles with her, but his intention in reconciliation is so that he can cause her harm. This is not allowed in Islam. Another point is aleyla' (disassociating with one's wife).

Traveling or being away from the family for a long time and without a good reason - this can cause harm to the wife and family.

Breastfeeding - in the case of divorce, the husband tries to take the baby away from the mother and not allow her to feed him. This is prohibited. [See Surah Al-Baqarah : Ayah 233]

Selling and trading - when someone is in great need of something, the seller (who knows this) sells him at a very high price - this is not allowed. Some scholars consider this as a form of riba' (profit) which is prohibited in Islam.

Somene who wants to buy is not good at bargaining, and because of this the seller sells at a very high price, more than it is worth. This is prohibited. According to Imam Malik if the price exceeds a third of what it is worth, it is considered harm.

Someone may do something for a beneficial reason and with a good intention. But he overdoes it, and consequently causes harm to others. Examples of this scenario are as follows:
Burning rubbish on your property on a windy day. This will cause harm to your neighbours. It may cause harm to the environment and the people in the neighbouring countries. This kind of harm should be brought to an end.

Building a high building, as mentioned above. Building a high building where it will obstruct air, sunlight, and moonlight, is not allowed because it will cause harm.

Digging a well that will cause damage to the well of one's neighbour. If one needs to dig a well, he should position it a little further away from his neighbour's.

Behaving on one's property in a way that will harm his neighbours.

Causing bad smell to spread from one's property to his neighbours'.

A person may have a property which is within the property of another person, on which he might cause the harm.


Ibn Rajab mentions that there are also some other types of actions which imply that Allah did not ask His servants to do anything that will cause us harm. He said that whatever Allah commands us to do is beneficial in this world and the Hereafter. And whatever Allah prohibits is harmful to us whether it is in this world or in the Hereafter. Examples of these actions include:


Tayammum (ablution without using water) - this is permissible for sick people or when there is no water.
The traveler or the sick does not have to fast - they can make up for it in the future.
Another example is taken from the biography of Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, where he saw someone walking and asked about him. The companions told him that this man made a vow or commitment that he will perform pilgrimage walking. The Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, said Allah is not in need for this one to torture himself. He asked his companions to tell the man to look for a ride, that is, to use an easier way or means to go for his pilgrimage.
The person who has debt. If you lend someone money and he is indeed in a very bad financial situation, then you should give him time for him to get the money and pay you back.
These are just some examples that are mentioned by Ibn Rajab where there is a caused harm and that harm should be prevented.

conclusion

Any act that causes harm to others, whether individually or as a community and whether it is beneficial or not beneficial to the one who causes it, is prohibited in Islam. It should not exist in the first place and if it did, then a deliberate effort should be made to remove or minimize it. The scholars point out that those in authority should interfere and prevent such harmful acts.

 
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« Reply #54 on: January 26, 2011, 11:40:57 AM »

Salam,

You know the nature of human only the Almighty Allah would satisfied our needs, i had complaining in the aboved post requesting you to be much around but you are speedy not even know from where would have contiunue fallowing you right now. Nevertheless i keep fallowing you steady with care for me to catch the points and the massage of the hadith.

Ma'asalam.
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« Reply #55 on: January 27, 2011, 12:32:48 PM »

Salam,
You know the nature of human only the Almighty Allah would satisfied our needs, i had complaining in the aboved post requesting you to be much around but you are speedy not even know from where would have contiunue fallowing you right now. Nevertheless i keep fallowing you steady with care for me to catch the points and the massage of the hadith.
Ma'asalam.

سْمِ اللهِ، وَالصَّلَاةُ وَالسَّلَّامُ عَلَى رَسُولِ اللهِ

وعليكم السلام ورحمة الله وبركاته

I am sure you will catch up inshaAllah.

.
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« Reply #56 on: February 06, 2011, 01:21:07 PM »

بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

HADITH 33

 لَوْ يُعْطَى النَّاسُ بِدَعْوَاهُمْ، لادَّعَى رِجَالٌ أَمْوَالَ قَوْمٍ وَدِمَاءَهُمْ؛ لكِنِ الْبَيِّنَةُ عَلَى الْمُدَّعِي، وَالْيَمينُ عَلَى مَنْ أَنْكَرَ

  حَدِيثٌ حَسَنٌ، رَوَاهُ الْبَيْهَقِيُّ وَغَيْرُهُ هكَذَا وَبَعْضُهُ فِي الصَّحِيحَيْنِ
 
Ibn 'Abbas, radiyallahu 'anhu, said that the Messenger of Allah, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, said:
"Were people to be given according to their claims, some would claim the wealth and blood of others. But the burden of proof is upon the claimant and the taking of an oath is upon the one who denies (the allegation)."
[An excellent hadith which al-Bayhaqi and others have related. Parts of it is in the two Sahih books (i.e. in al-Bukhari and Muslim).]
________________________________________
background
There are in every judicial dispute at least two litigating parties, the plaintiff and the defendant. The first claims what is contrary to the apparent fact; the second holds to the apparent fact and denies the claim. (Mahmassani: Falsaft al-Tashri' al-Islami - p 169, 170).
 
This hadith forms an important maxim. The text of the hadith has been expressed in the following way:
"Evidence is for the person who claims; the oath is for the person who denies."
(The Mejelle 1967 article # 76)
________________________________________
lessons
This hadith shows the supreme importance of proof to the administration of justice. The necessity of proof is a restrainer to false, weak, and unsubstantiated claims. (Mahmassani 168).
Therefore it becomes important to know upon who the onus of proof lies. There is no doubt that the burden is upon the plaintiff. This is explained by the fact that what is apparent is presumed to be the original state; any one who makes a claim to the contrary must prove such claim. (ibid)
The proof of a matter requires presentation of evidence until the matter attains the degree of certainty. Certainty is that which can be established by sight or proof. It can only be dispelled by another certainty. (ibid)
Since it is established that a defendant is presumed to be free from liability until the claimant proves the contrary, it is important to know who is the defendant and who is the plaintiff, who of the two must bear the onus of proof, and whose evidence takes precedence in case of conflict. (ibid p172).
 
The definition of "Plaintiff" and "Defendant"
There are three views regarding the above issue (Zarabozo 3/ 1167):
1.   The plaintiff is the one who is not charged with anything or can remain silent of the two disputants.
2.   The plaintiff is the one who is claiming something other than what is apparent or what has not yet been established in the past. The defendant is the one who is on the opposite side, arguing to what is apparent.
3.   The defendant is the one rejecting a claim while the plaintiff is the one making the claim.
 
The meaning of al-Bayinah or "proof" (ibid)
Many jurists seem to think that "proof" refers only to witnesses. However, the meaning of proof is much more comprehensive and also applies to means of proof other than witnesses.
According to some early and contemporary scholars, "al-Bayinah" or proof is a noun that encompasses all means of establishing the truth. Circumstantial evidence, conclusive presumption, and clear signs that lead to a definite conclusion can all be taken into consideration .
Modern forms of criminal investigation can be used in making judicial conclusion. Otherwise, rights will be lost and injustice will be allowed to prevail.
 
The criteria for being an acceptable witness (ibid)
1.   The witness must be sane and comptent.
2.   In general, the witness must be an adult.
3.   The witness must be a Muslim unless it be in a case dealing with non-Muslims.
4.   The witness must be of sound memory.
5.   The witness must be a person of integrity and honesty.
 
The importance of giving one's testimony
It is an obligation that people offer their testimony truthfully when called upon to do so. Allah the Almighty says:
And the witness should not refuse when they are called.
[Surah al-Baqarah: Ayah 282]
It is considered a sin to conceal what one has witnessed. Allah tha Almighty says:
And conceal not the testimony, for he who hides it is certainly sinful of heart.
[Surah al-Baqarah: Ayah 283]
 
A warning to those who make successful false claims
It is noted that Islam stresses on appealing to fearing Allah whenever there is misuse of authority, or taking chances over others in all human relations such as trading, family disputes, and making false claims against others.
The Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, said:
"I am a human being. You come to me as litigants. Perhaps, one of you is better in presenting his argument than the other and I decide in his favour according to what I have heard. If I have decided anything for someone from the rights of his brother, he should not take it for I have portioned for him a portion of the Hell fire."
In another hadith the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, warns us that taking as little as a spin of a palm of some one else's property unjustly will be horribly taken responsible for in the Day of Judgment.
In a third hadith the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, cursed the one who changes for no good reason the landmarks of a property.
________________________________________
conclusion
Islam is a practical religion where it takes into account the possible natural conflicts, quarrels, and disputes among community individuals where people may claim something against one another. Islam establishes rules and principles by which these disputes are brought to an end in a just manner.

A person is free of guilt or claims made against him or her until proven otherwise.
 

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« Reply #57 on: February 06, 2011, 01:21:27 PM »

بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

HADITH 34

  مَنْ رَأَى مِنْكُمْ مُنْكَرًا فَلْيُغَيِّرْهُ بِيَدِهِ، فَإِنْ لَمْ يَسْتَطِعْ فَبِلِسَانِهِ، فَإِنْ لَمْ يَسْتَطِعْ فَبِقَلْبِهِ، وَذلِكَ أَضْعَفُ الإِيْمَان

 رَوَاهُ مُسْلِمٌ
 
On the authority of Abu Sa'id al-Khudri, radiyallahu 'anhu, who said: I heard the Messenger of Allah, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, say:
"When any one of you sees anything that is disapproved (of by Allah), let him change it with his hand. If he is not able to do so, then let him change it with his tongue. And if he is not able to do so, then let him change it with his heart, though that is the weakest (kind of) faith."
[Muslim]
________________________________________
background
The essence of the Islamic da'wah is enjoining the good and forbidding the evil, since whenever a person conveys the Message, he is enjoining good and forbidding evil. Therefore, it is a mistake to consider these two as separate matters, since they are actually performed concurrently and are synonymous.
The main objective in fulfilling this obligation is to attain and maximize benefits, and to eliminate or minimize harm.
 
Qualities possessed by a Caller who enjoins the good and forbids the evil
1.   Ikhlas (Sincerity) - since enjoining the good and forbidding the evil becomes an action pleasing to Allah and accepted by Him only if it is done with sincerity for Him.
2.   'Ilm (Knowledge) - as Allah commands:
Say: This is my path, I do call to Allah upon clear knowledge.
[Surah Yusuf (12): Ayah 108]

This is an important condition since the Caller must know what matters are good, so he enjoins it, and what matters are evil, so he forbids it. In Ibn Taymiyyah's al-Amar it is stated that it is necessary to possess the knowledge of good and evil and of the difference between them, and it is necessary to know the situation of the person being commanded or forbidden.
3.   Hikmah (Wisdom) - which means saying or doing the right thing in the right way at the right time to the right person, as prescribed by Allah in His statement:
Call to the way of your Lord with wisdom and beautiful admonition.
[Surah an-Nahl (16): Ayah 125]

Ibn Taymiyyah wrote: Enjoin the good in a good way and do not forbid the evil in an evil way.
4.   Hilm (Forbearance) and Rifq (Gentleness) - especially in the face of opposition from the people. As Allah said to His Messenger, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam:
And by the Mercy of Allah you were able to deal gently with them. If you had been severe and harsh-hearted, they would have broken away from you.
[Surah al-Imran (3): Ayah 159]

The Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, also said: Indeed gentleness does not enter into anything except it beautifies it, nor is it removed from anything except that it makes it ugly [Reported by Imam Muslim].
5.   Sabr (Patience) - since the people whom the Caller opposes in enjoining good and forbidding evil, may be stubborn to his call and may even try to harm him.
Ibn Taymiyyah says in al-Istiqaamah, concerning the call to the good and away from the evil: Knowledge must precede it, gentleness must accompany it and patience must follow it. Shaikh al-Humaid, the teacher of Shaikh Ibn Baz, said, in an explanation of Surah al-'Asr that Allah makes an oath that mankind will be in a state of deficiency, except with four conditions, which are: (a) iman, (b) good actions, (c) encouraging each other to the truth which means enjoining the good and forbidding the evil, and (d) encouraging each other to patience, which is required after enjoining good and forbidding evil. Furthermore each person will have a level of deficiency in accordance with the level of lack of any of these four.
6.   Tawaadu' (Humility) - since the people will not heed if the Caller is arrogant or he seeks to put himself above others.
7.   Qudwah (Good example) - for the Caller himself becomes a model to the people to whom he calls, doing those things which he enjoins and leaving those things which he forbids. Allah says:
O you who believe! Why do you say that which you do not do. It is a most hateful thing to Allah that you say that which you do not do.
[Surah as-Saff (61): Ayah 2-3]
8.   Husnul-Istimaa' (Good listening) - which is that the Caller is attentive to the needs and feelings and also the complaints of the people whom he calls.
9.   Shajaa'ah (Courage) - which does not refer to strength of the body; rather it is the strength of the heart, together with knowledge - this differentiates between true courage and mere recklessness.
10.   Karam (Generosity).
________________________________________
lessons
Scholars say that before using the hand, we should start with advice, warning the people of the consequence of evil and encouraging and motivating them to good actions. When this method has been fully utilised and there is no change in the people, only then is it permissible to use the hand.
 
Imam ash-Shatibi says that the Caller must predict the consequences of what he says or do, whether by hand or by tongue.
 
If it is very likely that, as a result of attempting to change the evil, the Caller himself or another person will be harmed, then changing the situation is no longer obligatory upon him. Here harm does not refer to insults or curses, but to physical injury such as being beaten or killed. Harm can also mean that a bad reputation is spread concerning the Caller. Ibn Qudaamah also includes financial loss, whether immediate or later, to such an amount which the Caller cannot afford.
 
People differ in their ability to change things; in general, when someone is higher in his rank or authority, then there is more responsibility on him to remove the evil.
 
Principles of Inkaarul-Munkar (Forbidding what is evil)
1.   Prioritise the evil, thus beginning with the higher priority before the lower.
2.   Tadarruj (Being gradual). Note the gradual method by which Allah made the drinking of wine forbidden: Firstly, by saying that there were benefits in it and harm in it but the harm outweighed the benefits; secondly, by forbidding the people to approach the prayer in a drunken state; and finally, by an outright prohibition. This step-by-step method does not imply that wine was not forbidden in the early stages, but it is a methodology from which we can benefit.
3.   Do not look for people's faults. Qadi Abu Ya'laa has noted an exception to this principle, which occurs when there are clues or information that an evil is taking place or is about to take place. Thus one may be able to prevent an evil, such as a murder or rape, from taking place by following up on information.
4.   Establish that the evil is indeed taking place.
5.   Choose a suitable time to forbid the evil.
o   The Caller should not delay until the evil has finished.
o   The Caller should exploit situations in which the people are more likely to respond to his call, for example when Yusuf, 'alayhi-salam, spoke to his companions in the prison about tauhid when they had been troubled by their dreams. Ibn Masoud said concerning this:
Verily the heart has moments of yearning and responsiveness
And moments of indifference and turning away
So snatch it at the time of yearning and response
And leave it at the time of indifference and turning away.
6.   Speak in private, as Imam ash-Shafie wrote:
Come to me with your advice when I am alone
And do not advise me in the crowd
Because advice amongst the people is a scolding
And I do not like to hear it aloud
Then if you disobey me and do not heed my words
Do not feel sad when you are not followed.
7.   Do not instigate or provoke the people, but use a good argument, as Allah says:
Call to the way of your Lord with wisdom and beautiful admonition, and argue with them with ways that are best.
[Surah an-Nahl (16): Ayah 125]

Imam Ghazali wrote: Don't convey the truth in a challenging manner.
8.   Show forgiveness and kindness towards the people, and not to be affected by worry or anger in case the people show a negative response to the advice.
9.   If a difference of opinion arose as a result of ijtihaad, then the Caller who holds one opinion should not forbid the other opinion.
10.   Weighing the principles of benefits and harms, as Ibn Taymiyyah wrote in al-Amar: If enjoining the good and forbidding the evil would result in a greater evil, then it is haram to do it. Enjoining the good should not lead to a better deed being left out and forbidding the evil should not lead to a greater evil taking place.
 
Ibn Rajab states that in enjoining the good and discouraging the evil the conductor is motivated by different reasons:
1.   It could be by hope in Allah's great reward for doing it.
2.   It could be by fearing Allah's punishment for renouncing this obligation.
3.   It could be by getting annoyed by seeing violations to what Allah has prescribed.
4.   It could be due to being faithful to the community members who indulge in evil and by being kind and merciful to them by making the effort to save them from being subject to Allah's anger, displeasure and punishment in this life and in the Hereafter.
5.   It could be by glorifying Allah and Loving Him much, for He deserves to be obeyed, remembered, and thanked.
Observing the last two motives alone can make burden of conducting this obligation a light, favorable one and will empower the conductor with enough potential belittle any difficulty or hardship he may encounter thereof.
________________________________________
conclusion
The last portion of the hadith clearly states that the least a Muslim can do in the case of witnessing an evil act is to change it by his/her heart. This means that he/she should dislike the evil he/she comes across. This is an action of the heart, such as saying: "O Allah, there is nothing that I can do to change this bad situation that You dislike and disapprove except that I hate it to take place. I do not agree to it. O Allah forgive me, guide me and save my heart to be influenced by it."
Unless this action of the heart is practiced, the heart of the believer who witnesses that evil will be subject to be influenced by that evil. A dark spot will be placed in that heart (as stated in another hadith related by al-Bukhari).
With the repetition of such negative attitudes, the heart will be subject to more dark spots placed in it until it is concealed and no longer appreciates what is good and no longer dislikes what is bad or evil. This means that the Muslim who does not practice the lowest level of forbidding the evil, will be subject to turn into being an evil doer him/herself.
 

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« Reply #58 on: February 06, 2011, 01:21:53 PM »

بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

HADITH 35

 لاَ تَحَاسَدُوا، وَلاَ تَنَاجَشُوا، وَلاَ تَبَاغَضُوا، وَلاَ تَدَابَرُوا، وَلاَ يَبِعْ بَعْضُكُمْ عَلَى بَيْعِ بَعْضٍ، وَكُونُوا عِبَادَ اللهِ إِخْوَاناً، الْمُسْلِمُ أَخُو الْمُسْلِمِ: لاَ يَظْلِمُهُ، وَلاَ يَخْذُلُهُ، وَلاَ يَكْذِبُهُ، وَلاَ يَحْقِرُهُ، التَّقْوَى ههُنَا ـ وَيُشِيرُ إِلَى صَدْرِهِ ثَلاَثَ مَرَّاتٍ ـ بِحَسْبِ امْرِئٍ مِنَ الشَّرِّ أَنْ يَحْقِرَ أَخَاهُ الْمُسْلِمَ، كُلُّ الْمُسْلِمِ عَلَى الْمُسْلِمِ حَرَامٌ: دَمُهُ، وَمَالُهُ، وَعِرْضُهُ

رَوَاهُ مُسْلِمٌ
 
 
Abu Hurairah, radiyallahu 'anhu, reported that the Messenger of Allah, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, said:
"Do not be envious of one another; do not artificially inflate prices against one another; do not hate one another; do not shun one another; and do not undercut one another in business transactions; and be as fellow-brothers and servants of Allah.
A Muslim is the brother of a Muslim. He neither oppresses him nor humiliates him nor looks down upon him. Piety is here - and he pointed to his chest three times. It is evil enough for a Muslim to hold his brother Muslim in contempt. All things of a Muslim are inviolable for another Muslim: his blood, his property and his honour."
[Muslim]
________________________________________
background
Unity is one of the greatest objectives of Islam. There are many verses in the Qur'an that urge Muslims to unite. In Surah al-'Imran, Ayah 103, Allah says:
And hold fast, all of you together, to the Rope of Allah (which is Islam) and be not divided among yourselves.
This is a very well-known verse to Muslims. In Surah al-Taubah, Ayah 71, Allah says:
The believing men and women are 'awliya' (loyal) to one another.
There are many other verses in the Qur'an that urge joining unity, as well as verses that forbid disunity. We can see this in the same Surah al-'Imran, Ayah 103, in which Allah says:
….and be not divided among yourselves.
So in the same verse the Muslims are asked to be united and prevented from disunity. The Qur'an contains many such verses, for example: Surah al-'Imran Ayah 105-107; Surah al-Hujurat Ayah 10; Surah al-An'am Ayah 153 and 159; and in Surah al-Rum Ayah 31-32. All of these verses and many others in the Qur'an forbid the division or split of the Muslim community.
Moreover, we have many hadiths that command the Muslims to be united. One hadith is recorded by Imam Muslim: "Verily Allah likes three things for you and disapproves three things for you: He is pleased with you but you worship Him and disassociate anything with him; that you hold fast to the Rope of Allah and not to be scattered (disunited); and He disapproves for you irrelevant talk, persistent questioning, and wasting of wealth."
We find that Islam commands the Muslims to practice things that will bring unity - there are conditions and actions where the Muslims need to perform to accomplish this. At the same time, we also find that there are many actions that Islam forbids because these actions may lead to the disunity of the Muslim ummah. This Hadith 35 falls in the latter category.
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lessons
The first action that the hadith forbids is envy (al-hasad). Muslim scholars like Imam Ghazali and others define envy as disliking to see a person receiving a bounty and wishing that he or she (the receipient) would lose it.
Ibn Rajab gives a different and broader definition. He states in his definition that it is part of human nature that a person dislikes anyone to be better than him in virtues. He says that people differ in their attitudes and he lists five categories of envy that people have:
1.   There are some people who will make the effort through action or speech to abolish the bounty received by someone whom they envy.
2.   There are others who will then try to get that bounty transferred to them. So they firstly try to take it away from the person they envy and then they try to get it for themselves. For instance, if a certain person is offered a certain position or authority, the envious one will try to do something by hand or by speech to take away that position or authority from that person. Then he will try to get that status or position transferred to himself.
3.   There are some people who do not make any effort by action or speech to harm the one whom they envy. Ibn Rajab says this category of people can be of two types:
a.   The one who does his best to eliminate the feeling of envy within himself but he cannot overcome it. In spite of this, he keeps fighting and struggling against it. Ibn Rajab says this type of person is excused from punishment.
b.   The one who thinks about envy and practices it again and again. He does not make any effort to fight it even though he does not do any harm by action or speech. But he actually enjoys and practices envy - he wishes that the bounty of the envied one will be lost. Consequently, this person is subject to punishment.
4.   There are those who, whenever they envy someone, do not harm him or her. They do not even wish the loss of the bounty from the envied one. Instead, they make the effort to attain a similar bounty or virtue for themselves. Ibn Rajab says: "If this bounty is wordly virtues or worldly bounties, there is no benefit in that." For example, if you see someone who has a Mercedes, and you try to attain a similar car for yourself, then there is no benefit in that. But if it is a righteous virtue, then it is good.
5.   There are some people who, whenever they feel envy, do their best to stop it and they will do a favour or something good for the person whom they envied. In addition, they will also make du'a for that person until they love him - because envy is usually associated with hatred. They will wish that the envied ones are better than them - they do not bother themselves if others have things which are better than what they have. Ibn Rajab says these people are the best category of true believers since everyone is subject to indulge or be trapped by envy or being envious of others.
 
Why is envy (hasad) forbidden?
It can cause - by the permission of Allah - harm to others whom are envied. Consequently, they are considered as evil acts in Islam. They can cause - even by just wishing - the harming of a person. It is the virtue of Shaitan. And it is also the virtue of Jews to envy other people. This is mentioned in Surah al-Baqarah, Ayah 109 and in Surah al-Nisa', Ayah 54.
The Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, warned Muslims against envy when he said "Creeping upon you is the diseases of those people before you: envy and hatred. And hatred is the thing that shapes. I do not say it shapes the hair but it shapes the religion. By the One in whose Hand is my soul, you will not enter paradise until you believe, and you will not believe until you love one another. Certainly, let me inform you of that which may establish such things: spread the greetings and peace among yourselves." [Recorded by Imam Ahmad and Al-Tirmidhi]
Since this is a harmful act, Muslims are asked to recite certain Qur'anic verses such as Surah al-Falaq, Surah an-Nas, and Surah al-Ikhlas to protect from envious people. According to the Muslim scholars, it would be preferable to recite them after the five prayers along with Ayat-ul-Kursi.
 
Al-Tanajush is translated literary as "do not artificially inflate the prices against one another". Najash that is mentioned in this hadith can be interpreted, according to Ibn Rajab, in two ways:
1.   It can be interpreted as bai' al-najash - the trading where a person offers a high price for a certain item not for the sake of buying it but for the sake of raising the price of the item so that in the end it is sold for more than its actual price/worth. This is usually done, even in the Muslim world today, by a previous agreement by the salesman and another person or relative who pretends that he wants to buy. This is done in the stock market or auctions where there is a person who keeps bidding higher prices for an item. He is doing a favour for the person who wants to sell. This is considered as bai' al-najash. The majority of Muslim jurists (fuqaha) say it is valid. However, they say that if the buyer finds that he has been manipulated in a way where the price exceeded drastically over the actual price, then he has the choice of returning the item.
2.   The second interpretation of najash is a broader one, more than merely limiting it to trading. Ibn Rajab says here it means any kind of deceiving actions that will lead to harming others. He adds that all dealings that are conducted in a deceiving way are included here. He quotes Surah Fatir, Ayah 43 : "That the evil plot encompasses only him who makes it."
 
Ibn Rajab says that this hadith is a warning to Muslims not to hate one another, especially if it is because of self-interest. Why? Because Muslims are brothers in Islam. They should love each other and should not hate one another. Consequently, al-nameemah, backbiting and slander are forbidden because they will lead to hatred among the Muslim community. Ibn Rajab says that when the Muslims started dividing into different sects because of conflicting views regarding certain religious matters, this led to disputes and hatred among the community, and thus disunity.
 
We should not turn our backs on one another. Ibn Rajab says this means any form of disassociation. He says that the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, said the Muslim is not allowed to disassociate himself from the others for more than three days. This is, as Ibn Rajab points out, in worldly matters. Whereas in the religious matters, disassociation is one of the punishments that Islam allows - e.g. to disassociate with those who commit sins in order to teach them a lesson. But scholars say that if the person who commits the sin is not likely to come back to the right path, then it is meaningless to disassociate with him. As one of the scholars pointed out, if the objectives of Islam are not fulfilled then disassociation is meaningless.
 
We should not undercut one another in business transactions. For example, if someone is trying to buy something from a salesman, in the middle of their negotiations another salesman appears and interferes and tries to get that customer to buy his product/service instead. This kind of transaction is forbidden because the customer has yet to make his final decision - it will lead to the disunity of the Muslim community.
 
The Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, asks us to be brothers to one another. Ibn Rajab says this is like justifying the actions that are mentioned by the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, because these evil acts will lead to spoiling the brotherhood of the Muslims. If Muslims avoid these evil acts, then this will lead them to be brothers. Moreover, Ibn Rajab says this statement implies that Muslims have to make the effort to do whatever that will lead to achieving this brotherhood. This means fulfilling all the obligations towards Muslims, for example like returning the greetings, visiting the sick, helping the needy, accepting invitations, sending presents, shaking hands, and smiling.
Then the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, says the Muslim is the brother of another Muslim. Ibn Rajab explains about this statement: "It is now obligatory for each brother that he tries to benefit his Muslim brother and to refrain from harming them." He adds that the major harm is oppression and injustice. If a Muslim is in need of your support and you fail to support or help him, this is unjust. There are many places in the Muslim world where the Muslims are in great need of help. They are being oppressed and nobody supports them. Accordingly, if we are not doing anything to help them, we are failing our Muslim brothers. We need to be united to solve the problems that we are facing today. Our main concern should be the unity of the ummah. A contemporary scholar, Abdurrahman Al-S'adi, says that one of the greatest forms of jihad is to make an effort to unite the Muslims. He states that cooperation among Muslims is an obligation.
 
We should not lie to our Muslim brothers. We should also refrain ourselves from belittling or making fun of other Muslims. We should not make signals or gestures that threaten the face value of our Muslim brothers. We should take care not to be cynical to others and not to undermine other Muslims.
 
The Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, says taqwa is in the heart. Ibn Rajab comments on this statement saying it is evidence that the most noble among people are the ones who are righteous even if they are not lucky in the sight of other people. If they are righteous, they are the most noble in the sight of Allah.
It can be said that all that has been mentioned in this hadith has to do with the heart: loving Muslims, and not to envy them. When we have taqwa in our hearts, we will not do the forbidden acts mentioned - our hearts will be purified and filled with love.
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conclusion
"All things of a Muslim are inviolable for another Muslim: his blood, his property, and his honour." This important last statement, which was mentioned by the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, in his farewell sermon (hajat alwadaa'), concludes or summarises what this hadith is about. This hadith clearly states that harming others either by saying or doing is considered an evil act. Allah says:
And those who annoy believing men and women undeservedly, they bear on themselves the crime of slander and plain sin.
[Surah al-Ahzab: Ayah 58]
Allah made the believers as brothers so that they have mercy upon one another; so that they love one another; so that they help one another and support one another. This is how Muslims should be.

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بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

HADITH 36

 مَنْ نَفَّسَ عَنْ مُؤْمِنٍ كُرْبَةً مِنْ كُرَبِ الدُّنْيَا، نَفَّسَ اللهُ عَنْهُ كُرْبَةً مِنْ كُرَبِ يَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ، وَمَنْ يَسَّرَ عَلَى مُعْسِرٍ، يَسَّرَ اللهُ عَلَيْهِ فِي الدُّنْيَا وَالآخِرَةِ، وَمَنْ سَتَرَ مُسْلِمًا سَتَرَهُ اللهُ فِي الدُّنْيَا وَالآخِرَةِ، وَاللهُ فِي عَوْنِ الْعَبْدِ مَا كَانَ الْعَبْدُ فِي عَوْنِ أَخِيهِ، وَمَنْ سَلَكَ طَرِيقاً يَلْتَمِسُ فِيْهِ عِلْماً، سَهَّلَ اللهُ لَهُ بِهِ طِرِيقاً إِلَى الْجَنَّةِ، وَمَا اجْتَمَعَ قَوْمٌ فِي بَيْتٍ مِنْ بُيُوتِ اللهِ، يَتْلُونَ كِتَابَ اللهِ وَيَتَدَارَسُونَهُ بَيْنَهُمْ، إِلاَّ نَزَلَتْ عَلَيْهِمُ السَّكِينَةُ، وَغَشِيَتْهُمُ الرَّحْمَةُ، وَحَفَّتْهُمُ الْمَلاَئِكَةُ، وَذَكَرَهُمُ اللهُ فِيمَنْ عِنْدَهُ، وَمَنْ بَطَّأَ بِهِ عَمَلُهُ لَمْ يُسْرِعْ بِهِ نَسَبُهُ

رَوَاهُ مُسْلِمٌ بِهذَا اللَّفْظِ
 
It was related on the authority of Abu Hurairah, radiyallahu 'anhu, that the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, said:
"Whosoever relieves from a believer some grief pertaining to this world, Allah will relieve from him some grief pertaining to the Hereafter. Whosoever alleviates the difficulties of a needy person who cannot pay his debt, Allah will alleviate his difficulties in both this world and the Hereafter. Whosoever conceals the faults of a Muslim, Allah will conceal his faults in this world and the Hereafter. Allah will aid a servant (of His) so long as the servant aids his brother. Whosoever follows a path to seek knowledge therein, Allah will make easy for him a path to Paradise. No people gather together in one of the houses of Allah, reciting the Book of Allah and studying it among themselves, except that tranquility descends upon them, mercy covers them, the angels surround them, and Allah makes mention of them amongst those who are in His presence. Whosoever is slowed down by his deeds will not be hastened forward by his lineage."
[Muslim]
________________________________________
background
This hadith was recorded by Imam Muslim by the above text. However, there is another version of the hadith where it was recorded by both Imam Muslim and Imam al-Bukhari with the following text:
"A Muslim is the brother of a Muslim - he does not wrong him nor does he forsake him when he is in need; whosoever is fulfilling the needs of his brother, Allah is fulfilling his needs; whosoever removes distress from a believer, Allah removes from him a distress from a distressful aspect of the Day of Resurrection; and whosoever conceals the faults of a Muslim, Allah will conceal his faults on the Day of Resurrection."
We see that in this hadith the obligations towards other Muslims are emphasised and the fulfillment of brotherhood is again stressed.
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lessons
"Whosoever relieves from a believer some grief pertaining to this world, Allah will relieve from him some grief pertaining to the Hereafter."
This means that the reward of an act is of a similar nature to the act itself. Or the reward to the act is relevant to the act itself or from the same type. There are many hadiths that emphasise this principle. Grief or distress in this hadith means a great difficulty or hardship a Muslim is facing. In one version of the hadith, it is stated as "whosoever relieves" and in another version "whosoever removes". There is obviously a difference between the two versions because 'to relief' means to minimise the difficulty or distress, whereas 'to remove' means to totally eradicate the difficulty or hardship.
Ibn Rajab says the one who successfully removes a grief or distress that a Muslim is encountering will be rewarded more than the one who helps and tries his best to minimise the consequences of a certain difficulty. This is natural because there are two different situations: The first one is related to the capacity of the person who is able only to minimise the distress. The other situation is not just a matter of capacity but also a willingness to do more to remove the distress totally. Ibn Rajab emphasises that we have to motivate Muslims to help others and to remove the distress or difficulties of one another.
The Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, says that the reward for the removal or relief of the distress of a Muslim will be rewarded by a removal of a similar distress or difficulty in the Hereafter. Ibn Rajab questions the difference between the two situations where in the first one the hadith mentioned only the relief or removal of the distressful aspect of the Hereafter and not in this world. He says that not everyone is subject to such distress in this world - this is contrasted to ale'sar (unable to repay). He explains that since the difficulties of this life are incomparable to the distress aspects of the Hereafter (which nobody can endure as it is beyond human capacity), Allah reserves the reward for removing a distress of a distressful aspect of this life until the Day of Judgment.
 
"Whosoever alleviates the difficulties of a needy person who cannot pay his debt, Allah will alleviate his difficulties in both this world and the Hereafter."
Here, it is not wise or appropriate for a Muslim to demand his money back from a poor or needy Muslim who honestly cannot afford to pay him. He should either give him a chance until he is able to repay his money or forgive him. The first choice is an obligation because Allah commands us to do so in Surah al-Baqarah, Ayah 280. The second way of alleviation is that the person who is owed the money might forgive the borrower and try to help him not just by giving him more time but also by reducing the amount of money owed or forgiving him.
The Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, says in one of his great hadiths: "A man of the previous nations was very rich and people used to borrow money from him. Not only did he lend them money, which is indeed a good deed, but he also asked his sons to alleviate and forgive those who could not repay the money." The Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, says that in the Hereafter Allah will reward him and forgive his sins because of his generosity. Allah says in Surah al-Furqan, Ayah 26 that "it will be a very hard day for the disbelievers". This means that there is a situation where a person who is kind to those in need and Allah will relief that person by rewarding him a great reward from Allah's Mercy and Help.
 
"Whosoever conceals the faults of a Muslim, Allah will conceal his faults in this world and the Hereafter."
Ibn Rajab says that people can fall into two categories:
1.   Those who are not known for transgression or committing bad deeds. For these people, if by any chance they commit a mistake, it should not be revealed. On the contrary, it should be concealed and not even talked about.
2.   Those who are very well known as transgressors or wrongdoers, and who even speak proudly about their shameful and sinful acts. Ibn Rajab mentions that if there is a need to mention the qualities of these people, we should do so for the benefit of the Muslim community.
The statement in this hadith does not apply to the second category of people. The general rule that we derive from the hadith is that Muslims should not reveal the mistakes of their Muslim brothers to others. Some Muslims today take it as a topic for fun and entertainment to reveal the mistakes of others even on very minor issues. As Muslims we should refrain ourselves from such acts. Consequently, the reward will be that Allah will conceal our faults from others. In this life we are subject to faults. If we do not conceal the faults of others, Allah will put us in a situation where our faults will be exposed to other people and everyone will be talking about them. So the punishment is relevant or of the same nature of the act if it is a bad act.
Another thing that is also worth mentioning is the faults of the ulama' or scholars. Nowadays we can notice a very strange attitude coming from some seekers of knowledge who try to find out and reveal the mistakes of very well-known scholars. This sort of situation is even worse because they are revealing the mistakes of not just regular persons. If it is a matter of academic discussion or research, we should handle it in an appropriate way that upholds the status of our scholars.
 
"Allah will aid a servant (of His) so long as the servant aids his brother."
This statement is a principle. Before this statement, the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, gives us three examples of Allah helping those who help others.
But should we confine ourselves only to the needy mentioned in the hadith? Of course not. The Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, wants to convey to us that we should help our brothers in any way possible. There are hundreds of forms of need. For example, helping the blind to cross the street or any of the great and charitable acts that are mentioned in Hadiths 25 and 26. The greater the help, the greater the reward. This is something that Muslims should take seriously because if we have a community which care about each other and help one another, then there would be no needy. This should be our attitude - we should seek to be motivated to offer our help at any time to our Muslim brothers.
 
"Whosoever follows a path to seek knowledge therein, Allah will make easy for him a path to Paradise."
Here we can find the encouragement of Islam in seeking and gaining knowledge. The knowledge seekers will be rewarded if the knowledge is beneficial to oneself as well as for the betterment of the Muslim community.
This statement of the hadith can be interpreted in 3 ways:
1.   Allah will make it easy for the knowledge seeker to gain the knowledge that he is seeking.
2.   Allah will make it easy for the knowledge seeker so that he will benefit from the knowledge he is seeking. This means that he will benefit from the knowledge and this will lead him to enter Paradise. There are many people who seek knowledge but there are no blessings in the knowledge they seek. The crucial point here is the person should seek knowledge with good intentions.
3.   For the one who seeks knowledge with good intentions, Allah will safely help him go through the horrible incidents and situations on the Day of Judgment.
Ibn Rajab classifies ilm (knowledge) into two types:
1.   The outcome of knowledge is placed in the heart. That is the knowledge about Allah and His attributes that implies fearing Allah, glorifying Him, and loving Him.
2.   The knowledge that we merely memorise or speak about - without our hearts being influenced or affected. This means that if the person does not abide by the knowledge that he has already obtained, then he is in a very critical situation where the he may be subject to the punishment of Allah.
 
"No people gather together in one of the houses of Allah, reciting the Book of Allah and studying it among themselves, except that tranquility descends upon them, mercy covers them, the angels surround them, and Allah makes mention of them amongst those who are in His presence."
Here the hadith implies a preferable act: to go to the mosque, to recite and study the Qur'an, or attending lectures. Ibn Rajab says that this can be applied to all branches of knowledge and not just the Qur'an. The hadith mentions four rewards for those who gather in the mosque:
1.   Tranquility - this is a great reward which includes relief from stress and being calm.
2.   The Mercy of Allah over them.
3.   The angels surrounding them.
4.   Allah making mention of them amongst those who are in His presence.
 
"Whosoever is slowed down by his deeds will not be hastened forward by his lineage."
This indicates that doing deeds are the means of getting the rewards and that will lead a person to Paradise. Allah says: "For all shall be judged against their actions". If the good deeds are not enough, the person's lineage or ancestry will not benefit him. This is because Allah made rewards related to good deeds and not lineage.
No ties of kinship will prevail amongst them.
[Surah al-Mu'minun: Ayah 101]
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conclusion
"A Muslim is the brother of a Muslim; he does not wrong him nor does he forsake him when he is in need; whosoever is fulfilling the needs of his brother, Allah is fulfilling his needs."
This version of the hadith starts by stating a great principle: Muslims are brothers - one will not harm another nor will he do injustice or fail him when he is in need. Then the hadith states a motivation factor: Whosoever is fulfilling the needs of his brother, Allah is fulfilling his needs.
This version is more than simply stating a principle - it can be taken as a motivation for helping other Muslims, especially those who are in need. We just need to imagine the situation of the ummah when we help each other and fulfill the needs of others. We will end up being a better society, with less needy people, and stronger social ties that will lead to the strength of the Muslim ummah at large

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